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Vitamin B6

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
Vitamin B6
Drug class
The chemical structure of pyridoxal phosphate, a form of vitamin B6.
Class identifiers
Use Vitamin B6 deficiency
ATC code A11HA02
Biological target enzyme cofactor
Clinical data
Drugs.com International Drug Names
External links
MeSH D025101

Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically very similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems. Vitamin B6 is part of the vitamin B group, and its active form, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate(PLP) serves as a coenzyme in many enzyme reactions in amino acidglucose, and lipid metabolism.

Forms

Several forms (vitamers) of vitamin B6 are known:

All forms except pyridoxic acid[1] and pyritinol can be interconverted. Absorbed pyridoxamine is converted to PMP by pyridoxal kinase, which is further converted to PLP by pyridoxamine-phosphate transaminase or pyridoxine 5′-phosphate oxidase[2] which also catalyzes the conversion of PNP to PLP. Pyridoxine 5′-phosphate oxidase is dependent on flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as a cofactor which is produced from riboflavin (vitamin B2) i.e. in this biochemical pathway, dietary vitamin B6 cannot be used without vitamin B2.

Functions

PLP, the metabolically active form of vitamin B6, is involved in many aspects of macronutrient metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, histamine synthesis, hemoglobin synthesis and function, and gene expression. PLP generally serves as a coenzyme (cofactor) for many reactions including decarboxylationtransaminationracemization, elimination, replacement, and beta-group interconversion.[3] The liver is the site for vitamin B6 metabolism.

Amino acid metabolism

  1. PLP is a cofactor in the biosynthesis of five important neurotransmittersserotoninepinephrine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). PLP is also involved in the synthesis of histamine.
  2. Transaminases break down amino acids with PLP as a cofactor. The proper activity of these enzymes is crucial for the process of moving amine groups from one amino acid to another.
  3. Serine racemase which synthesizes the neuromodulator serine is a PLP-dependent enzyme.
  4. PLP is a coenzyme needed for the proper function of the enzymes cystathionine synthase and cystathionase. These enzymes catalyze reactions in the catabolism of methionine. Part of this pathway (the reaction catalyzed by cystathionase) also produces cysteine.
  5. Selenomethionine is the primary dietary form of selenium. PLP is needed as a cofactor for the enzymes that allow selenium to be used from the dietary form. PLP also plays a cofactor role in releasing selenium from selenohomocysteine to produce hydrogen selenide, which can then be used to incorporate selenium into selenoproteins.
  6. PLP is required for the conversion of tryptophan to niacin, so low vitamin B6 status impairs this conversion.[3][4]

Glucose metabolism

PLP is a required coenzyme of glycogen phosphorylase, the enzyme necessary for glycogenolysis to occur.[3] PLP can catalyze transamination reactions that are essential for providing amino acids as a substrate for gluconeogenesis.

Lipid metabolism

PLP is an essential component of enzymes that facilitate the biosynthesis of sphingolipids.[3] Particularly, the synthesis of ceramide requires PLP. In this reaction, serine is decarboxylated and combined with palmitoyl-CoA to form sphinganine, which is combined with a fatty acyl-CoA to form dihydroceramide. Dihydroceramide is then further desaturated to form ceramide. In addition, the breakdown of sphingolipids is also dependent on vitamin B6 because sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase, the enzyme responsible for breaking down sphingosine-1-phosphate, is also PLP-dependent.

Hemoglobin synthesis and function

PLP aids in the synthesis of hemoglobin, by serving as a coenzyme for the enzyme ALA synthase.[5] It also binds to two sites on hemoglobin to enhance the oxygen binding of hemoglobin.[3]

Gene expression

PLP has been implicated in increasing or decreasing the expression of certain genes. Increased intracellular levels of the vitamin lead to a decrease in the transcription of glucocorticoids. Also, vitamin B6 deficiency leads to the increased gene expression of albumin mRNA. Also, PLP influences expression of glycoprotein IIb by interacting with various transcription factors. The result is inhibition of platelet aggregation.[3]

Nutrition

Food sources

Vitamin B6 is widely distributed in foods in both its free and bound forms. Cooking, storage, and processing losses of vitamin B6 vary and in some foods may be more than 50%,[6] depending on the form of vitamin present in the food. Plant foods lose the least during processing, as they contain mostly pyridoxine, which is far more stable than the pyridoxal or pyridoxamine found in animal foods. For example, milk can lose 30–70% of its vitamin B6 content when dried.[3] Vitamin B6 is found in the germ and aleurone layer of grains, and milling results in the reduction of this vitamin in white flour. The heating that occurs before most freezing and canning processes are other methods that may result in the loss of vitamin B6 in foods.[7]

Foods that contain large amounts of vitamin B6 include pork,[8] turkey,[9] beef,[10] bananas,[11] chickpeas,[12] potatoes,[13] and pistachios.[14]

Dietary reference intake

The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the U.S. Institute of Medicine updated Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamin B6 in 1998. The current EARs for vitamin B6 for women and men ages 14 and up increase with age from 1.0 to 1.3 mg/day and from 1.1 to 1.4 mg/day, respectively; the RDAs increase with age from 1.2 to 1.5 and from 1.3 to 1.7 mg/day, respectively. RDAs are higher than EARs so as to identify amounts that will cover people with higher than average requirements. RDA for pregnancy equals 1.9 mg/day. RDA for lactation equals 2.0 mg/day. For infants up to 12 months the Adequate Intake (AI) is 0.1–0.3 mg/day. and for children ages 1–13 years the RDA increases with age from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/day. As for safety, the FNB sets Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (known as ULs) for vitamins and minerals when evidence is sufficient. In the case of vitamin B6 the UL is set at 100 mg/day.[15] The European Food Safety Authority reviewed the same safety question and set its UL at 25 mg/day.[16]Safety issues are presented at length in the Toxicity section. Collectively the EARs, RDAs, AIs and ULs are referred to as Dietary Reference Intakes.

For U.S. food and dietary supplement labeling purposes the amount in a serving is expressed as a percent of daily value (%DV). For vitamin B6 labeling purposes 100% of the Daily Value was 2.0 mg, but as of May 2016 it has been revised to 1.7 mg. A table of the pre-change adult Daily Values is provided at Reference Daily Intake. Food and supplement companies have until July 28, 2018 to comply with the change.

Absorption and excretion

Vitamin B6 is absorbed in the jejunum and ileum by passive diffusion. With the capacity for absorption being so great, animals are able to absorb quantities much greater than necessary for physiological demands. The absorption of pyridoxal phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate involves their dephosphorylation catalyzed by a membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase. Those products and nonphosphorylated forms in the digestive tract are absorbed by diffusion, which is driven by trapping of the vitamin as 5′-phosphates through the action of phosphorylation (by a pyridoxal kinase) in the jejunal mucosa. The trapped pyridoxine and pyridoxamine are oxidized to pyridoxal phosphate in the tissue.[3]

The products of vitamin B6 metabolism are excreted in the urine, the major product of which is 4-pyridoxic acid. An estimated 40–60% of ingested vitamin B6 is oxidized to 4-pyridoxic acid. Several studies have shown that 4-pyridoxic acid is undetectable in the urine of vitamin B6-deficient subjects, making it a useful clinical marker to assess the vitamin B6 status of an individual.[3] Other products of vitamin B6 metabolism excreted in the urine when high doses of the vitamin have been given include pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxine and their phosphates. A small amount of vitamin B6 is also excreted in the feces.

Deficiency

Signs and symptoms

The classic clinical syndrome for vitamin B6 deficiency is a seborrhoeic dermatitis-like eruption, atrophic glossitis with ulcerationangular cheilitisconjunctivitisintertrigo, and neurologic symptoms of somnolence, confusion, and neuropathy[17] (due to impaired sphingosin synthesis) and sideroblastic anemia (due to impaired heme synthesis).

Less severe cases present with metabolic lesions[clarify] associated with insufficient activities of the coenzyme PLP. The most prominent of the lesions is due to impaired tryptophanniacin conversion. This can be detected based on urinary excretion of xanthurenic acid after an oral tryptophan load. Vitamin B6 deficiency can also result in impaired transsulfuration of methionine to cysteine. The PLP-dependent transaminases and glycogen phosphorylase provide the vitamin with its role in gluconeogenesis, so deprivation of vitamin B6 results in impaired glucose tolerance.[3]

Diagnosis

The assessment of vitamin B6 status is essential, as the clinical signs and symptoms in less severe cases are not specific.[18] The three biochemical tests most widely used are the activation coefficient for the erythrocyte enzyme aspartate aminotransferase, plasma PLP concentrations, and the urinary excretion of vitamin B6 degradation products, specifically urinary PA. Of these, plasma PLP is probably the best single measure, because it reflects tissue stores.[19] Plasma PLP less than 10 nmol/l is indicative of vitamin B6 deficiency.[19] A PLP concentration greater than 20 nmol/l has been chosen as a level of adequacy for establishing Estimated Average Requirements and Recommended Daily Allowances in the USA.[15] Urinary PA is also an indicator of vitamin B6 deficiency; levels of less than 3.0 mmol/day is suggestive of vitamin B6 deficiency.[20]

Also liver test AST ALT can be low due to pyridoxine deficiency

The classic syndrome for vitamin B6 deficiency is rare, even in developing countries. A handful of cases were seen between 1952 and 1953, particularly in the United States, and occurred in a small percentage of infants who were fed a formula lacking in pyridoxine.[21]

Causes

A deficiency of vitamin B6 alone is relatively uncommon and often occurs in association with other vitamins of the B complex. The elderly and alcoholicshave an increased risk of vitamin B6 deficiency, as well as other micronutrient deficiencies.[22] Evidence exists for decreased levels of vitamin B6 in women with type 1 diabetes and in patients with systemic inflammation, liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and those infected with HIV.[23][24][25] Use of oral contraceptives and treatment with certain anticonvulsantsisoniazidcycloserinepenicillamine, and hydrocortisone negatively impact vitamin B6status.[26][27][28] Hemodialysis reduces vitamin B6 plasma levels.[29]

There are indications that B6 deficiency can be influenced by theophylline in medication or malnutrition.[medical citation needed]

Treatment

Treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency lies with replacement, usually in the form of pyridoxine hydrochloride, orally, as a nasal spray, or for injection when in its solution form.

Toxicity

Adverse effects have been documented from vitamin B6 supplements, but never from food sources. Toxicologic animal studies identify specific destruction of the dorsal root ganglia[30] which is documented in human cases of overdose of pyridoxine.[31] Although it is a water-soluble vitamin and is excreted in the urine, doses of pyridoxine in excess of the RDI over long periods of time result in painful and ultimately irreversible neurological problems.

The primary symptoms are pain and numbness of the extremities. In severe cases, motor neuropathy may occur with "slowing of motor conduction velocities, prolonged F wave latencies, and prolonged sensory latencies in both lower extremities", causing difficulty in walking.[32] Sensory neuropathytypically develops at doses of pyridoxine in excess of 1,000 mg per day, but adverse effects can occur with much less, so doses over 200 mg are not considered safe.[33] Symptoms among women taking lower doses have been reported.[34] Two reported cases of neuropathy with pyridoxine treatment of 24 and 40 mg/day may have been coincidental.[33]

Existing authorizations and valuations vary considerably worldwide. In 1993, the European Community Scientific Committee on Food defined intakes of 50 mg of vitamin B6 per day as harmful and established a tolerable upper intake level of 25 mg/day for adults in 2000. The Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals of the Food Standard Agency UK (UK EVM) derived a safe upper level (SUL) of 10 mg/day for a 60 kg adult in 2003. The tolerable upper limit has been set by the US FDA at 100 mg/day in 2000.[35]

The nutrient reference values in Australia and New Zealand recommend an upper limit of 50 mg a day in adults. "The same figure was set for pregnancy and lactation as there is no evidence of teratogenicity at this level. The UL was set based on metabolic body size and growth considerations for all other ages and life stages except infancy. It was not possible to set a UL for infants, so intake is recommended in the form of food, milk or formula." "The ULs were set using results of studies involving long-term oral administration of pyridoxine at doses of less than 1 g/day.[15][34][36][37][38][39] A no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 200 mg/day was identified from the studies of Bernstein & Lobitz (1988) and Del Tredici et al (1985). These studies involved subjects who had generally been on the supplements for five to six months or less. The study of Dalton and Dalton (1987), however, suggested the symptoms might take substantially longer than this to appear. In this latter retrospective survey, subjects who reported symptoms had been on supplements for 2.9 years, on average. Those reporting no symptoms had taken supplements for 1.9 years."[40]

Because no placebo-controlled studies show therapeutic benefits of high doses of pyridoxine, and the well-documented occurrence of significant toxic effects, little reason exists to exceed the RDI using supplements unless under medical supervision (e.g. in treatment of primary hyperoxaluria).

History

In 1934, the Hungarian physician Paul György discovered a substance that was able to cure a skin disease in rats (dermititis acrodynia). He named this substance vitamin B6.[41][42] In 1938, Samuel Lepkovsky isolated vitamin B6 from rice bran. Harris and Folkers in 1939 determined the structure of pyridoxine, and, in 1945, Snell was able to show the two forms of vitamin B6, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. Vitamin B6 was named pyridoxine to indicate its structural homology to pyridine.

See also

References

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  2. Jump up^  Ink, S. L.; Henderson, L. M. (1984). "Vitamin B6 metabolism". Annu. Rev. Nutr4 (1): 455–470. doi:10.1146/annurev.nu.04.070184.002323PMID 6380540.
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j Combs, G. F. (2008). The Vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health. San Diego: Elsevier.
  4. Jump up^  Lichtstein, H. C.; Gunsalus, I. C.; Umbreit, W. W. (1945). "Function of the vitamin B6 group; pyridoxal phosphate (codecarboxylase) in transamination" (PDF)J. Biol. Chem161 (1): 311–320. PMID 21005738.
  5. Jump up^  "Heme Synthesis"RPI.edudoi:10.1042/BJ20030513. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  6. Jump up^  McCormick, D. B. (2006). "Vitamin B6". In Bowman, B. A.; Russell, R. M. Present Knowledge in Nutrition2 (9th ed.). Washington, DC: International Life Sciences Institute. p. 270.
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  8. Jump up^  "10973, Pork, ground, 96% lean / 4% fat, raw"National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 27. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  9. Jump up^  "05305, Ground turkey, raw"National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 27. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  10. Jump up^  "23040, Beef, chuck, shoulder clod, shoulder top and center steaks, separable lean and fat, trimmed to 0" fat, select, cooked, grilled"National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 27. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 27 June2015.
  11. Jump up^  "09040, Bananas, raw"National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 27. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  12. Jump up^  "16360, Chickpeas (garbanzo beans, bengal gram), mature seeds, canned, solids and liquids, low sodium"National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 27. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  13. Jump up^  "11356, Potatoes, Russet, flesh and skin, baked"National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 27. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  14. Jump up^  "12151, Nuts, pistachio nuts, raw"National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 27. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
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  16. Jump up^  Tolerable Upper Intake Levels For Vitamins And Minerals (PDF), European Food Safety Authority, 2006
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  18. Jump up^  Gibson, R. S. (2005). "Assessment of vitamin B6 status". Principles of Nutritional Assessment (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 575–594.
  19. Jump up to:a b Liu, A.; Lumeng, L.; Aronoff, G.; Li, T-K. (1985). "Relationship between body store of vitamin B6 and plasma pyridoxal-P clearance: metabolic balance studies in humans". J. Lab. Clin. Med106 (5): 491–497. PMID 4056565.
  20. Jump up^  Leklem, J. (1990). "Vitamin B6: A status report". J. Nutr120: 1503–1507. PMID 2243296.
  21. Jump up^  Menkes, John H. (1980). Textbook of Child Neurology. Henry Kimpton Publishers. ISBN 0-8121-0661-X.
  22. Jump up^  Bowman, B. A.; Russell, R. M. (2006). Present Knowledge in Nutrition (9th ed.). Washington, DC: ILSI Press. p. 273.
  23. Jump up^  Massé, P. G.; Boudreau, J.; Tranchant, C. C.; Ouellette, R.; Ericson, K. L. (2012). "Type 1 diabetes impairs vitamin B6 metabolism at an early stage of women's adulthood". Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism37 (1): 167–175. doi:10.1139/h11-146PMID 22288928.
  24. Jump up^  Ulvik, A; Midttun, O.; Pedersen, E. R.; Eussen, S. J.; Nygård, O.; Ueland, P. M. (2014). "Evidence for increased catabolism of vitamin B6 during systemic inflammation". Am. J. Clin. Nutr100 (1): 250–255. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.083196PMID 24808485.
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  27. Jump up^  Wilson, S. M.; Bivins, B. N.; Russell, K. A.; Bailey, L. B. (2014). "Oral contraceptive use: impact on folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 status". Nutr. Rev69 (10): 572–583. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00419.xPMID 21967158.
  28. Jump up^  Schwaninger, M.; Ringleb, P.; Winter, R.; Kohl, B.; Fiehn, W.; Rieser, P. A.; Walter-Sack, I. (1999). "Elevated plasma concentrations of homocysteine in antiepileptic drug treatment". Epilepsia40 (3): 345–350. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1999.tb00716.xPMID 10080517.
  29. Jump up^  Corken, M.; Porter, J. (2011). "Is vitamin B6 deficiency an under-recognized risk in patients receiving hemodialysis? A systematic review: 2000–2010". Nephrology (Carlton)16 (7): 619–625. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1797.2011.01479.xPMID 21609363.
  30. Jump up^  Perry, T. A.; Weerasuriya, A.; Mouton, P. R.; Holloway, H. W.; Greig, N. H. (2004). "Pyridoxine-induced toxicity in rats: a stereological quantification of the sensory neuropathy". Exp. Neurol190 (1): 133–144. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2004.07.013PMID 15473987.
  31. Jump up^  Schaumburg, H.; Kaplan, J.; Windebank, A.; Vick, N.; Rasmus, S.; Pleasure, D.; Brown, M. J. (1983). "Sensory neuropathy from pyridoxineabuse. A new megavitamin syndrome". N. Engl. J. Med309 (8): 445–448. doi:10.1056/nejm198308253090801PMID 6308447.
  32. Jump up^  Foca, F. J. (September 1985). "Motor and sensory neuropathy secondary to excessive pyridoxine ingestion". Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil66 (9): 634–636. PMID 2994596.
  33. Jump up to:a b Katan, M. B. (Nov 12, 2005). "How much vitamin B6 is toxic?". Ned. Tijdschr. Geneeskd149 (46): 2545–2546. PMID 16320662.
  34. Jump up to:a b Dalton, K.; Dalton, M. J. T. (Jul 1987). "Characteristics of pyridoxine overdose neuropathy syndrome". Act. Neurol. Scand76 (1): 8–11. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0404.1987.tb03536.xPMID 3630649.
  35. Jump up^  Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (2008). "Opinion on Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate as a source for vitamin B6 added for nutritional purposes in food supplements" (PDF)The EFSA Journal760: 1–13.
  36. Jump up^  Berger, A.; Schaumburg, H. H. (1984). "More on neuropathy from pyridoxine abuse". N. Engl. J. Med311 (15): 986–987. doi:10.1056/nejm198410113111513PMID 6472428.
  37. Jump up^  Dalton, K. (1985). "Pyridoxine overdose in premenstrual syndrome". Lancet1 (8438): 1168–1169. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(85)92480-8PMID 2860378.
  38. Jump up^  Del Tredici, A. M.; Bernstein, A. L.; Chinn, K. (1985). "Carpal tunnel syndrome and vitamin B6 therapy.". In Reynolds, R. D.; Leklem, J. E. Vitamin B6: Its Role in Health and Disease. New York: Liss. pp. 459–462.
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  41. Jump up^  György, Paul (1934). "Vitamin B2 and the pellagra-like dermatitis in rats". Nature133 (3361): 498–499. Bibcode:1934Natur.133..498Gdoi:10.1038/133498a0.
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External links

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_B6

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Prodigy-5 delivers a new TransArmor™ Nutrition bio-enhancing technology.
See how it works:

Prodigy-5 revolutionaly Trans-Armor™ nutrient technology, developed by medical industry leader doctors aids the body in absorbing more of the nutrition than it normally would, thereby increasing efficiencies and overall health. In addition to this scientifically proven technology, Prodigy-5 is considered an all-in-one nutritional habit.

Prodigy 5 contains the new "Trans-Armor™" delivery technology that provides nutrition and energy at the highest level of absorption to our body's cells, including:

• a micronutrient formula for general health,
• a micronutrient formula for eye health,
• an impressive antioxidant profile,
• an impressive and new bio-enhancing absorption technology


Does not contain artificial sweetners or additives. Sweetened with Pomegranate, Raspberry, and Stevia.

PRODIGY-5 HIGHLIGHT

PHYTOPLANKTON

One of those rare products that contains almost everything you need for life (and the rebuilding of cells) is marine phytoplankton.

Marine phytoplankton are one-cell plants that are too small to be seen individually without the aid of a microscope. Because they are microscopic, the body’s cells can absorb them immediately (bioavailability) and receive all of their valuable nutrients at the same time for maximum effectiveness.

The marine phytoplankton, also known as a “Superfood”, is according to NASA and plenty of scientific researches the most important plant and food in the world as it provides the earth with over 90% of it’s oxygen. Marine phytoplankton is not only an important source of oxygen it is a critical food source for ocean life and apparently, for us too.

There are very few (foods) that provide all, or even most, of the raw materials to make new cells and sustain the existing ones. A complete super food, these amazing plants contain more than 90 nutrients vital for a healthy body.

It contains all nine amino acids that the body cannot make. The essential fatty acids are also present (Omega-3 and Omega-6). Further it contains the most important vitamins and mineral nutrients. For example vitamin C, H, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, E, selenium, zinc, chromium, magnesium, calcium, nickel, iron and many more. (General informations about vitamins)

These valuable nutrients are essential for the production of healthy new cells. We all have, at one time or another, cellular or energy blockages, whether they be emotional or physical. And, among the functional ingredients identified from marine algae, natural pigments (NPs) have received particular attention.

Some benefits (but not all) of marine phytoplankton include:

Support Cardiovascular Health: The high level of antioxidants, amino acids, and high levels of omega-3 fatty acids are known to support a healthier cardiovascular system.

Promotes Healthy Skin: There are large amounts of bioflavonoids that can remove toxins from skin cells. Marine phytoplankton also contains riboflavin that reduces free radical attacks in skin cells.

Boost the Immune System: Alanine, beta-carotene, bioflavonoids, and vitamin E are all immune system enhancers found in this superfood.

Increase Energy: Marine phytoplankton detoxifies the body, and eliminates toxins from the cells. This will improve your energy and mood levels.

Stabilizes Blood Sugar Levels: Marine phytoplankton is really good for stabilizing blood sugar levels. Chromium helps to prevent and moderate against diabetes. Glutamic acids help to reduce alcohol and sugar cravings. Phenylalanine is a known sugar craving reducer.

Helps with Joint Health: Manganese helps to assist in joint mobility. Omega-6 fatty acids can relieve symptoms of arthritis. Pathogenic acid can reduce morning pain caused by arthritis. It will help a lot with joint mobility, and reducing pain and stiffness.

Liver Support: The arginine is found in this superfood and is known to help detoxify the liver.

Improves Brain Function: The high amount of omega-3 fatty acids improve brain function. The nucleic acids can enhance the memory. Phenylalanine improves mental clarity. Proline increases learning ability. Magnesium helps reduce mood swings.

More information about phytoplankton

PRODIGY-5 HIGHLIGHT

VITAMINS AND MINERALS

MICRONUTRIENT FORMULA FOR GENERAL HEALTH

Vitamin A • Vitamin C • Vitamin D • Vitamin E • Vitamin K • Vitamin B6 • Vitamin B12 • Folate • B1 (Thiamin) • B2 (Riboflavin) • B3 (Niacin)



MICRONUTRIENT FORMULA FOR EYE HEALTH

Lutein • Zeaxanthin • Copper • Zinc

Vitamins have specific role to play in the natural wear and tear of the body. There are many vitamin benefits that have a major impact on our overall health.
Vitamins are divided into two types: fat soluble and water soluble. Fat soluble vitamins (vitamin A, D, E and K) are stored in the fat tissues and liver. They can remain in the body up to six months. When the body requires these, they are transported to the area of requirement within the body with help of special carriers. Water soluble vitamins (B-vitamins and vitamin C) are not stored in the body like the fat soluble ones. They travel in the blood stream and need to be replenished everyday.


Below is a list of the 13 major vitamins and what each does for your body:

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin A (Beta-Carotene) is a natural antioxidant. It belongs to a class of pigments known as carotenoids which include the yellow, red and orange pigments that give many vegetables and plants their coloring. Vitamin A has been found to enhance immune system functions by supporting and promoting the activities of white blood cells as well as other immune related cells. It also helps to inhibit free radicals and their damaging effects which have been associated with arthritis, heart disease and the development and progression of malignant cells (cancer). Beta-carotene is a precursor for vitamin A (approximately 6 mg of ß-carotene = 1 mg vitamin A). Beta-carotene is best known for the body’s ability to convert it into retinal, which is essential for good vision and visual health, skin, and immune functions.
Natural sources of beta-carotene include carrots, pumpkin, sweet potato, spinach, kale, collard and turnip greens, and winter squash.

According to the National Institutes on Health, the average adult male should be getting 900mcg of vitamin C each day. Females should be getting 700mg a day. Individuals with special needs (women who are pregnant, smokers) may have different requirements and should consult their health professional.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) is a water-soluble B-vitamin involved with many cellular functions including carbohydrates metabolism, break down of amino acids, production of certain neurotransmitters and multiple enzyme processes (through the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate, or TPP). Thiamin can be found in small amounts in a wide variety of foods. Pork, sunflower seeds, yeast, peas and wheat are a few examples. Very little thiamin is stored within the body and must be consumed on a regular basis. A deficiency may result in weakness, loss of appetite, nerve degeneration and irritability.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin), like most B-vitamins, is involved in many cellular functions. Riboflavin is important in energy metabolism, folate synthesis, conversion of tryptophan to niacin and acts as important coenzymes (FAD/FMN) involved in many reactions. It can be found in liver, mushrooms, spinach, milk, eggs and grains. Because it is water-soluble, there is minimal storage of riboflavin within the body and when dietary intake is insufficient, deficiency can occur (usually accompanied with other vitamin deficiencies).

Prodigy-5 contains:Vitamin B3 (Niacin), also referred to as nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, is another water-soluble, B-vitamin involved with energy metabolism. The coenzymes of niacin (NAD/NADH/NADP/NADPH) are necessary for ATP synthesis (the body’s main energy source), synthesis of fatty acids and some hormones and the transport of hydrogen atoms. When niacin levels are low, the body can use L-tryptophan (an essential amino acid) to manufacture the vitamin. This process is not ideal, however, as it can rapidly deplete L-tryptophan in the body and take away from its other needs such as maintaining optimal levels of serotonin and melatonin. Niacin can be found in grains, liver, fish and chicken.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin which plays a variety of important roles in numerous biological processes. Humans cannot produce vitamin B6 so it must be obtained from the diet. Adequate sources of B6 include meats (salmon, turkey, chicken) and whole grain products, such as spinach, nuts and bananas. There are three forms of vitamin B6: pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxine (PN) and pyridoxamine (PM). Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) is the principal coenzyme form and has the most importance in human metabolism. It acts as a cofactor for many enzymatic reactions involving L-tryptophan, including L-tryptophan’s conversion to serotonin, an important neurotransmitter in the brain. Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate is also involved in other enzymatic reactions where other neurotransmitters, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), are synthesized. This plays a critical role in the functions of the nervous system.
Regarding cardiovascular health, there is an association between low vitamin B6 intake with increased blood homocysteine levels and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, which has been documented in several large observational studies. Vitamin B6, along with folic acid, vitamin B5, vitamin B12 and niacin, is involved in cell metabolism, enhances the immune system, supports the functions of the nervous system, aids in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy and promotes cognitive health. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the conduction of nerve impulses, regulation of steroid hormones, catabolism of glycogen to glucose, heme synthesis, and the synthesis/ metabolism of amino acids and neurotransmitters.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin essential for numerous processes in the body. The richest food sources of vitamin B12 include animal products such as meat, poultry and fish. It is not generally present in plant products with the exeption of peanuts and soybeans which absorb vitamin B12 from bacteria-filled nodules growing on the roots of these plants. Cyanocobalamin is the form most commonly used in supplements but it must be converted into methylcoblamin before it can join the metabolic pool and be properly utilized by the body. Vitamin B12 is also available as methylcobalamin, which is the methylated form, allowing it to become active quicker and be more effective. Vitamin B12 is necessary for countless processes within the body; it transfers methyl groups, plays a part in DNA synthesis and regulation, helps facilitate cell synthesis, maturation and division, helps convert homocysteine to methionine playing a role in cardiovascular protection, aids in the proper functioning of the nervous system, participates in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, helps produce SAMe for mood and cognitive health and also helps produce energy.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble antioxidant essential for human health and life. It has been proven necessary for healthy immune responses, wound healing, non-heme iron absorption (coming from grains and vegetables), reduction in allergic responses, development of connective tissue components such as collagen, and for the prevention of diseases. Vitamin C has also been shown to be important for cardiovascular health, reducing free radicalproduction and free radical damage, and good cognitive health and performance.
Due to human’s inability to produce vitamin C, it is essential to ingest sources containing vitamin C on a regular, if not daily basis. Natural sources of vitamin C include oranges, guavas, peppers (green, red, yellow), kiwis, strawberries, cantaloupes, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, and many other fruits and vegetables.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin essential for normal growth and development, the formation and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth, and influences the absorption and metabolism of phosphorus and calcium. It is necessary for proper muscle functioning, bone mineralization and stability, and multiple immune functions. Primarily the vitamin D used by the body is produced in the skin after exposure to ultraviolet light from sunlight. Lack of exposure to sunlight, reduced ability to synthesize vitamin D in the skin, age, low dietary intake, or impaired intestinal vitamin D absorption can result in deficiency. Deficiency has been associated with rickets (poor bone formation), porous or weak bones (osteopenia, osteoporosis), pain and muscle weakness, increased risk for cardiovascular disease, impaired cognitive health, and the development and progression of malignant cells (cancer).
Natural food sources of vitamin D are few; these foods are eggs from hens that have been fed vitamin D or fatty fish such as herrings, mackerel, sardines and tuna. Due to low vitamin D levels, countries such as the United States and Canada have opted to fortify foods such as milk and other dairy products, margarines and butters, some natural cereal and grain products.
According to the National Institutes on Health, the average adult should be getting 600IU of vitamin D each day. Individuals with special needs (the elderly, women who are pregnant) may have different requirements and should consult their health professional.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin E is one of the most powerful fat-soluble antioxidants in the body. It has been proven to help promote cardiovascular health, enhanced immune system function, aid in skin repair and to protect cell membranes from damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin E contributes to proper blood flow and clotting as well as cognitive health and function.
Natural sources of vitamin E include herbs such as cloves and oregano, whole grains, nuts and seeds, wheat germ, avocado, egg yolks, and vegetables/fruits such as dark leafy greens, peppers (red, yellow, orange, green), tomatoes, and mangos. Other sources are vegetable oils, margarines, and fortified cereals.

Prodigy-5 contains: Folic Acid is water-soluble vitamin important for many aspects of health. Sources of folic acid include dark, green leafy vegetables such as spinach or asparagus, fortified cereals, orange juice and legumes. Folic acid (folate) must go through a series of chemical conversions before it becomes metabolically active to be properly utilized within the body.
Folinic acid is the highly bioavailable, metabolically active derivative of folic acid and does not require the action of the enzyme dihydrofolinate reductase to become active, so it’s not affected by medicines and herbs that inhibit this enzyme. Adequate folate is necessary for proper DNA and RNA synthesis in regards to fetal growth and development. Due to these effects, the U.S. Public Health Service recommends all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 mcg of folic acid daily to prevent neural tube defects.
In addition to its clear effects on fetal growth and development, folic acid also plays an important role in cardiovascular health. By aiding in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine, it has been shown to reduce the levels of homocysteine, a sulfur containing amino acid. In the absence of adequate folic acid levels, homocysteine levels increase and high homocysteine levels are associated with atherosclerosis and the reduced circulation of oxygen and nutrients to the heart, ears and other organs. These results have been documented in countless studies. Folic acid, along with vitamin B6, vitamin B5, vitamin B12 and niacin, is involved in cell metabolism, enhances the immune system, supports the functions of the nervous system, aids in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy and promotes cognitive health.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin K, a generic term for a group of fat soluble vitamins, are involved mostly in the process of blood clotting, but also needed in metabolic pathways of bones and other tissues. The most well known are vitamin K1, also known as phylloquinone, and vitamin K2, known as menaquinone. Vitamin D and vitamin K work together in bone metabolism and development. Vitamin K works against oral anticoagulants such as 4-hidroxikumarin, and excessive vitamin K intake, either through supplementation or a change in diet, can reduce the anticoagulant effect. Vitamin K1 is mainly found in leafy green vegetables (such as spinach, swiss chard and kale), avocado and kiwi fruit; vitamin K2 can be found in meat, eggs, and dairy and is also synthesized by bacteria in the colon.

More information about vitamins

PRODIGY-5 HIGHLIGHT

ANTIOXIDANTS


WHAT ARE OXIDANTS?

Oxidants are free radicals that either our bodies produce or we get from the environment. Our bodies create oxidants as a response to stress or poor diet, or we are exposed to oxidants through environmental factors like pollution. Oxidative damage is a contributing factor to many diseases, including muscle and tissue degeneration, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and many other health problems.


WHAT ARE FREE RADICALS?

Free radicals are atoms or groups of atoms with an odd (unpaired) number of electrons. They are like bullies that are low in energy and attack healthy cells and steal their energy to satisfy themselves. Free radicals cause damage to our blood vessels, which can lead to deposits of bad cholesterol and block arteries. Free radicals come in many shapes, sizes, and chemical configurations. What they all share is a voracious appetite for electrons, stealing them from any nearby substances that will yield them.

The human body naturally produces free radicals and the antioxidants to counteract their damaging effects. However, in most cases, free radicals far outnumber the naturally occurring antioxidants. In order to maintain the balance, a continuous supplemental source of external antioxidants are necessary in order to obtain the maximum benefits of antioxidants.


WHAT ARE ANTIOXIDANTS AND WHY DO WE NEED THEM?

Antioxidants are the nutrients’ police force! They are free radical scavengers! They get rid of the bullies! Antioxidants are like a million microscopic special ops on a mission to save your body from the inside out. The benefits of antioxidants are very important to good health, because if free radicals are left unchallenged, they can cause a wide range of illnesses and chronic diseases.

WHERE CAN WE FIND ANTIOXIDANTS?

Obtained through our foods and produced by are bodies, antioxidants are a powerful defense system.
Antioxidants can be found in flavonols (found in chocolate), resveratrol (found in wine), Ellagic acid (found in Raspberries and pomegranate), and lycopene (found in tomatoes). Other popular antioxidants include vitamins A (beta-carotene), C, E, and catechins.

GREAT SOURCES OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN PRODIGY-5

Marine phytoplankton, Raspberries, Pomegranates, Curcuma

Raspberries and pomegranates contain one of the most powerful antioxidants known, Ellagic acid. Ellagic acid is a potent natural antioxidant that can be found in raspberries and pomegranates. Ellagic acid has been shown to be an effective anti- mutagen and anti-carcinogen.

Anthocyanins (red flavonoid pigment found in plants) give pomegranates their red color and offer a strong serving of antioxidants. Punicalagins (a type of phenolic compound) specifically support cardiovascular and neurological health. Studies have shown that antioxidants 18. can play a role in reducing the cell damage of free radicals.

ANTIOXIDANTS AND AGING

Antioxidants are powerful molecules that support healthy aging in more ways than one. These potent compounds aid in an overall healthy lifestyle by supporting cellular health. Aging isn’t about your chronological age; it is more about the amount of stress in your life and the the function of your cells!

More information about antioxidants

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PRODIGY 5 PRICES


PRODIGY-5 Single Case
(One case contains 28 serving) prices
$ 75.95
€ 69.11
Prodigy 5 Single DEF small

PRODIGY-5 Double Case 
(One case contains 28 serving) prices
$ 149.95
€ 136.45
Prodigy 5 Double DEF small

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