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Niacin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Vitamin B3)
 
This article is about the nutrient. For the neo-fusion band, see Niacin (band). For niacins, see Nicotinic acids.
Niacin
Kekulé, skeletal formula of niacin
Ball and stick model of niacin
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Pyridine-3-carboxylic acid[1]
Other names
Nicotinic acid (INN)
Bionic
Vitamin B3
Identifiers
59-67-6 Yes
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
3DMet B00073
109591
ChEBI CHEBI:15940 Yes
ChEMBL ChEMBL573 Yes
ChemSpider 913 Yes
DrugBank DB00627 Yes
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.401
EC Number 200-441-0
3340
1588
KEGG D00049 Yes
MeSH Niacin
PubChem 938
RTECS number QT0525000
UNII 2679MF687A Yes
Properties
C
6
NH
5
O
2
Molar mass 123.1094 g mol−1
Appearance White, translucent crystals
Density 1.473 g cm−3
Melting point 237 °C; 458 °F; 510 K
18 g L−1
log P 0.219
Acidity (pKa) 2.0,4.85
Isoelectric point 4.75
1.4936
0.1271305813 D
Thermochemistry
−344.9 kJ mol−1
−2.73083 MJ mol−1
Pharmacology
C04AC01 (WHOC10AD02 (WHO)
Intramuscular, Oral
Pharmacokinetics:
20–45 min
Hazards
Irritant Xi
R-phrases R36/37/38
S-phrases S26S36
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oil Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no code NFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 193 °C (379 °F; 466 K)
365 °C (689 °F; 638 K)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Yes verify (what is Yes ?)
Infobox references
   

Niacin, also known as vitamin B3 and nicotinic acid, is an organic compound with the formula C
6
H
5
NO
2
and, depending on the definition used, one of the 20 to 80 essential human nutrientsPharmaceutical and supplemental niacin are primarily used to treat hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol) and pellagra (niacin deficiency). Insufficient niacin in the diet can cause nausea, skin and mouth lesions, anemia, headaches, and tiredness. The lack of niacin may also be observed in pandemic deficiency disease, which is caused by a lack of five crucial vitamins (niacin, vitamin Cthiaminvitamin D, and vitamin A) and is usually found in areas of widespread poverty and malnutrition. Niacin has not been found to be useful in decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in those already on a statin[2] but appears to be effective in those not taking a statin.[3]

This colorless, water-soluble solid is a derivative of pyridine, with a carboxyl group (COOH) at the 3-position. Other forms of vitamin B3 include the corresponding amide and nicotinamide ("niacinamide"), where the carboxyl group has been replaced by a carboxamide group (CONH
2
), as well as more complex amides and a variety of esters. Nicotinic acid and niacinamide are convertible to each other with steady world demand rising from 8,500 tonnes per year in the 1980s to 40,000 in recent years.[4]

Niacin cannot be directly converted to nicotinamide, but both compounds are precursors of the coenzymesnicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) in vivo.[5] NAD converts to NADP by phosphorylation in the presence of the enzyme NAD+ kinase. NADP and NAD are coenzymes for many dehydrogenases, participating in many hydrogen transfer processes.[6] NAD is important in catabolism of fat, carbohydrate, protein, and alcohol, as well as cell signaling and DNA repair, and NADP mostly in anabolism reactions such as fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis.[6] High energy requirements (brain) or high turnover rate (gut, skin) organs are usually the most susceptible to their deficiency.[7] Although the two are identical in their vitamin activity, nicotinamide does not have the same pharmacological effects (lipid modifying effects) as niacin. Nicotinamide does not reduce cholesterol or cause flushing.[8] As the precursor for NAD and NADP, niacin is also involved in DNA repair.[9][10]

Dietary reference intake

The Food and Nutrition Board of the U.S. Institute of Medicine updated Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for niacin in 1998. The current EARs for niacin for women and men ages 14 and up are 11 mg/day and 12 mg/day, respectively; the RDAs are 14 and 16 mg/day, respectively. RDAs are higher than EARs so as to identify amounts that will cover people with higher than average requirements. RDA for pregnancy equals 18 mg/day. RDA for lactation equals 17 mg/day. For infants up to 12 months the Adequate Intake (AI) is 2–4 mg/day. and for children ages 1–13 years the RDA increases with age from 6 to 12 mg/day. As for safety, the Food and Nutrition Board also sets Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (known as ULs) for vitamins and minerals when evidence is sufficient. In the case of niacin the UL is set at 35 mg/day.[11] The European Food Safety Authority reviewed the same safety question and set its UL at 10 mg/day.[12] Safety issues are presented at length in the Side Effects section. Collectively the EARs, RDAs, AIs and ULs are referred to as Dietary Reference Intakes.

For U.S. food and dietary supplement labeling purposes, the amount in a serving is expressed as a percent of Daily Value (%DV). For niacin labeling purposes, 100% of the Daily Value was 20 mg, but as of May 2016 it has been revised to 16 mg. A table of the pre-change adult Daily Values is provided at Reference Daily Intake. Food and supplement companies have until July 28, 2018, to comply with the change.

Deficiency

Main article: Pellagra
 
A man with pellagra, which is caused by a chronic lack of vitamin B3in the diet

Between 1906 and 1940 more than 3 million Americans were affected by pellagra with more than 100,000 deaths. Dr. Joseph Goldberger was assigned to study pellagra by the Surgeon General of the United States and produced good results. In the late 1930s, studies by Dr. Tom Spies, Marion Blankenhorn, and Clark Cooper established that niacin cured pellagra in humans. The disease was greatly reduced as a result.

At present, niacin deficiency is sometimes seen in developed countries, and it is usually apparent in conditions of poverty, malnutrition, and chronic alcoholism.[13] It also tends to occur in areas where people eat maize (corn) as a staple food, since it is the only grain low in digestible niacin. A cooking technique called nixtamalization increases the bioavailability of niacin during maize meal/flour production.

Mild niacin deficiency has been shown to slow metabolism, causing decreased tolerance to cold.

Severe deficiency of niacin in the diet causes the disease pellagra, which is characterized by diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia, as well as Casal's necklace lesions on the lower neck, hyperpigmentation, thickening of the skin, inflammation of the mouth and tongue, digestive disturbances, amnesia, delirium, and eventually death, if left untreated.[14] Common psychiatric symptoms of niacin deficiency include irritability, poor concentration, anxiety, fatigue, restlessness, apathy, and depression.[14] Studies have indicated that, in patients with alcoholic pellagra, niacin deficiency may be an important factor influencing both the onset and severity of this condition. Patients with alcoholism typically experience increased intestinal permeability, leading to negative health outcomes.

Hartnup disease is a hereditary nutritional disorder resulting in niacin deficiency.[14] This condition was first identified in the 1950s by the Hartnup family in London. It is due to a deficit in the intestines and kidneys, making it difficult for the body to break down and absorb dietary tryptophan. The resulting condition is similar to pellagra, including symptoms of red, scaly rash, and sensitivity to sunlight. Oral niacin is given as a treatment for this condition in doses ranging from 40–200 mg, with a good prognosis if identified and treated early.[14] Niacin synthesis is also deficient in carcinoid syndrome, because of metabolic diversion of its precursor tryptophan to form serotonin.

Medical uses

Abnormal lipids

Niacin is sometimes used in addition to other lipid-lowering medication.[15]

A 2014 review of niacin did not find that it affected either cardiovascular disease or risk of death in those already taking a statin, in spite of raising HDLcholesterol.[2] Niacin alone appears to reduce the rate of cardiovascular events, but not the rate of coronary or cardiovascular deaths.[16][17]

Treatment of deficiency

Niacin and niacinamide are used for prevention and treatment of pellagra.[18]

Contraindications

Niacin is contraindicated with active liver disease, persistent elevated serum transaminases, active peptic ulcer disease, or arterial bleeding.[19]

Side effects

The most common adverse effects are flushing (e.g., warmth, redness, itching and/or tingling), headache, pain, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting, rhinitis, pruritus and rash. These can be minimized by initiating therapy at low dosages, increasing dosage gradually, and avoiding administration on an empty stomach.[19] High doses of niacin often temporarily reduce blood pressure as a result of acute vasodilation.[20] In the longer term, high-dose niacin use may persistently lower blood pressure in individuals with hypertension, but more research is needed to determine the extent of this effect.[20]

Facial flushing

Flushing usually lasts for about 15 to 30 minutes, though it can sometimes last up to two hours. It is sometimes accompanied by a prickly or itchingsensation, in particular, in areas covered by clothing. Flushing can be blocked by taking 300 mg of aspirin half an hour before taking niacin, by taking one tablet of ibuprofen per day or by co-administering the prostaglandin receptor antagonist laropiprant. Taking niacin with meals also helps reduce this side effect. Acquired tolerance will also help reduce flushing; after several weeks of a consistent dose, most patients no longer experience flushing.[21]Reduction of flushing focuses on altering or blocking the prostaglandin mediated pathway.[22] Slow- or "sustained"-release forms of niacin have been developed to lessen these side effects.[23][24] One study showed the incidence of flushing was significantly lower with a sustained-release formulation,[25]though doses above 2 g per day have been associated with liver damage, in particular, with slow-release formulations.[26]

Prostaglandin (PGD2) is the primary cause of the flushing reaction, with serotonin appearing to have a secondary role in this reaction.[27] The effect is mediated by prostaglandin E2 and D2 due to GPR109A activation of epidermal Langerhans cells and keratinocytes.[28][29] Langerhans cells use cyclooxygenase type 1 (COX-1) for PGE2 production and are more responsible for acute flushing, while keratinocytes are COX-2 dependent and are in active continued vasodilation.[30][31] Flushing was often thought to involve histamine, but histamine has been shown not to be involved in the reaction.[27]

Gastrointestinal and hepatic

Gastrointestinal complaints, such as indigestion, nausea and liver failure, have also been reported. Hepatotoxicity is possibly related to metabolism via amidation resulting in NAD production.[32] The time-release form has a lower therapeutic index for lowering serum lipids relative to this form of toxicity.[33]

Metabolic

Although high doses of niacin may elevate blood sugar, thereby worsening diabetes mellitus,[26] recent studies show the actual effect on blood sugar to be only 5–10%. Patients with diabetes who continued to take anti-diabetes drugs containing niacin did not experience major blood glucose changes. Thus, overall, niacin continues to be recommended as a drug for preventing cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes.

Hyperuricemia is another side effect of taking high-dose niacin and may exacerbate gout.[34]

Other

Side effects of heart arrhythmias have also been reported.[26][page needed] Increased PT and decreased platelet count have been reported; therefore, these should be monitored closely in patients who are also taking anticoagulants.[19]

Particularly the time-release variety, at extremely high doses, can cause acute toxic reactions.[35] Extremely high doses of niacin can also cause niacin maculopathy, a thickening of the macula and retina, which leads to blurred vision and blindness. This maculopathy is reversible after niacin intake ceases.[36]

In pregnancy

Niacin in doses used to lower cholesterol levels has been associated with birth defects in laboratory animals, with possible consequences for infant development in pregnant women.[26]

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

Niacin's therapeutic effects are partly mediated through the activation of G protein-coupled receptors, including niacin receptor 1 (NIACR1) and niacin receptor 2 (NIACR2) which are highly expressed in adipose tissuespleenimmune cells and keratinocytes but not in other expected organs such as liverkidneyheart or intestine.[37][38] NIACR1 and NIACR2 inhibit cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production and thus fat breakdown in adipose tissue and free fatty acids available for liver to produce triglycerides and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and consequently low-density lipoprotein(LDL) or "bad" cholesterol.[32][39] Decrease in free fatty acids also suppress hepatic expression of apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) and PPARg coactivator-1b(PGC-1b) thus increase VLDL turn over and reduce its production.[40] It also inhibits diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (important hepatic TG synthesis).

The mechanism behind increasing HDL is not totally understood but it seems to be done in various ways. Niacin increases apolipoprotein A1 levels due to anti catabolic effects resulting in higher reverse cholesterol transport. It also inhibits HDL hepatic uptake, down-regulating production of the cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) gene.[41] Finally, it stimulates the ABCA1 transporter in monocytes and macrophages and up-regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ results in reverse cholesterol transport.[42]

It reduces secondary outcomes associated with atherosclerosis, such as low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), but increases high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL).[41] Despite the importance of other cardiovascular risk factors, high HDL was associated with fewer cardiovascular events independent of LDL reduction.[43][44] Other effects include anti-thrombotic and vascular inflammation, improving endothelial function, and plaque stability.[45] Adipokines are the adipocytes’ produced mediators. Some adipokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, interleukins and chemokines, have pro-inflammatory effect and some others such as adiponectin have anti-inflammatory effect that regulates inflammatory process, decrease vascular progression and atherosclerosis.[46]

Niacin also appears to upregulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) expression.[47]

Research has been able to show the function of niacin in the pathway lipid metabolism. It is seen that this vitamin can decrease the synthesis of apoB-containing lipoproteins such as VLDL, LDL, IDL and Lipoprotein (a) via several mechanisms: (1) Directly inhibiting the action of DGAT2, a key enzyme for triglyceride synthesis; (2) It has the ability to bind to the receptor HCAR2 thereby decreasing lipolysis and FFA flux to the liver for triglyceride synthesis;[11] and (3) increased apoB catabolism. On the other hand, HDL cholesterol levels are increased by niacin through direct and indirect pathways. (4) Niacin decreases CETP mass and activity, and this synergistic effect with the decrease in triglyceride levels, can indirectly raise HDL cholesterol levels. The study has also been able to show direct effects on the beta chain of ATP synthase (5) and on production (6) and hepatic uptake (7) of apoA-I also increase HDL cholesterol levels. Thus by affecting the pathway reducing lipid levels help in reducing CVD.[48]

Pharmacokinetics

 
Niacin, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), and melatonin biosynthesis from tryptophan

Biosynthesis

The liver can synthesize niacin from the essential amino acid tryptophan, requiring 60 mg of tryptophan to make one mg of niacin.[49] Riboflavinvitamin B6 and iron are required in some of the reactions involved in the conversion of tryptophan to NAD.

Physical and chemical properties

Laboratory synthesis

Several thousand tons of niacin are manufactured each year, starting from 3-methylpyridine.

Preparations

Many preparations of niacin are available over-the-counter as dietary supplements. Non-prescription extended release niacin, such as Endur-acin, which uses a wax matrix to delay release is available as well.[50][51]

Over-the counter plain niacin has FDA regulatory approval.[52] Some “no flush” types, such as inositol hexanicotinate contain convertible niacin compounds, but have little clinical efficacy in reducing cholesterol levels.[53][54] “Slow release” varieties have higher hepatotoxic activity, hence some types of prescription niacin are not recommended due to potential harm.[55]

Nicotinic acid

Extended release

A prescription extended release niacin, Niaspan, has a film coating that delays release of the niacin, resulting in an absorption over a period of 8–12 hours. The extended release formulations generally reduce vasodilation and flushing side effects, but increase the risk of hepatotoxicity compared to the immediate release forms.[56][57][58]

A formulation of laropiprant (Merck & Co., Inc.) and niacin had previously been approved for use in Europe and marketed as Tredaptive. Laropiprant is a prostaglandin D2 binding drug shown to reduce vasodilatation and flushing up to 73%.[41][59][60][61] The HPS2-THRIVE study,[62] a study sponsored by Merck, showed no additional efficacy of Tredaptive in lowering cholesterol when used together with other statin drugs, but did show an increase in other side effects. The study resulted in the complete withdrawal of Tredaptive from the international market.[63][64]

Inositol hexanicotinate

One form of dietary supplement is inositol hexanicotinate (IHN), which is inositol that has been esterified with niacin on all six of inositol's alcohol groups. IHN is usually sold as "flush-free" or "no-flush" niacin in units of 250, 500, or 1000 mg/tablets or capsules. It is sold as an over-the-counter formulation, and often is marketed and labeled as niacin, thus misleading consumers into thinking they are getting the active form of the medication. While this form of niacin does not cause the flushing associated with the immediate-release products, the evidence that it has lipid-modifying functions is disputed. As the clinical trials date from the early 1960s (Dorner, Welsh) or the late 1970s (Ziliotto, Kruse, Agusti), it is difficult to assess them by today's standards.[65] One of the last of those studies affirmed the superiority of inositol and xantinol esters of nicotinic acid for reducing serum free fatty acid,[66] but other studies conducted during the same period found no benefit.[67] Studies explain that this is primarily because "flush-free" preparations do not contain any free nicotinic acid. A more recent placebo-controlled trial was small (n=11/group), but results after three months at 1500 mg/day showed no trend for improvements in total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C or triglycerides.[68] Thus, so far there is not enough evidence to recommend IHN to treat dyslipidemia.

Nicotinamide[edit]

Nicotinamide may be obtained from the diet where it is present primarily as NAD+ and NADP+. These are hydrolysed in the intestine and the resulting nicotinamide is absorbed either as such, or following its hydrolysis to nicotinic acid. Nicotinamide is present in nature in only small amounts. In unprepared foods, niacin is present mainly in the form of the cellular pyridine nucleotides NAD and NADP. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the co-enzymes can occur during the course of food preparation. Boiling releases most of the total niacin present in sweet corn as nicotinamide (up to 55 mg/kg).[69]

Nicotinamide may be toxic to the liver at doses exceeding 3 g/day for adults.[70]

Food sources

Niacin is found in a variety of foods, including liver, chicken, beef, fish, cereal, peanuts, and legumes, and is also synthesized from tryptophan, an essential amino acid found in most forms of protein.

Animal products:

Fruits and vegetables:

Seeds:

Fungi:

Other:

History

Niacin was first described by chemist Hugo Weidel in 1873 in his studies of nicotine.[74] The original preparation remains useful: The oxidation of nicotineusing nitric acid.[75] For the first time, niacin was extracted by Casimir Funk, but he thought that it was thiamine and due to the discovered amine group he coined the term "vitamine". Niacin was extracted from livers by biochemist Conrad Elvehjem in 1937, who later identified the active ingredient, then referred to as the "pellagra-preventing factor" and the "anti-blacktongue factor."[76] Soon after, in studies conducted in Alabama and Cincinnati, Dr. Tom Spies found that nicotinic acid cured the sufferers of pellagra.[77]

Niacin is referred to as vitamin B3 because it was the third of the B vitamins to be discovered. It has historically been referred to as "vitamin PP", "vitamin P-P" and "PP-factor", that are derived from the term "pellagra-preventive factor".[78] When the biological significance of nicotinic acid was realized, it was thought appropriate to choose a name to dissociate it from nicotine, to avoid the perception that vitamins or niacin-rich food contains nicotine, or that cigarettes contain vitamins.[79] The resulting name 'niacin' was derived from nicotinic acid + vitamin.[78][80]

Carpenter found in 1951 that niacin in corn is biologically unavailable, and can be released only in very alkaline lime water of pH 11.[81]

In 1955, Altschul and colleagues described niacin as having a lipid lowering property.[82] Niacin is the oldest lipid lowering drug.

On April 22, 2014, Pennsylvania State University researchers working with NASA at the Goddard Astrobiology Analytical Laboratory reported[83] of finding niacin within eight CM-2 type carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. The meteorite’s vitamin B3 levels ranged from 30–600 parts per billion, the study reports. Related molecules discovered in the meteorites include pyridine carboxylic acids and pyridine dicarboxylic acids.

Research

In animal models and in vitro, niacin produces marked anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of tissues – including the brain, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and vascular tissue – through the activation of NIACR1.[84][85][86][87] Niacin has been shown to attenuate neuroinflammation and may have efficacy in treating neuroimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.[84][87] Unlike niacin, nicotinamide does not activate NIACR1, however both niacin and nicotinamide activate the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in vitro.[88]

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  27. Jump up to:a b Papaliodis D, Boucher W, Kempuraj D, Michaelian M, Wolfberg A, House M, Theoharides TC (December 2008). "Niacin-induced "Flush" Involves Release of Prostaglandin D2 from Mast Cells and Serotonin from Platelets: Evidence from Human Cells in Vitro and an Animal Model"J Pharmacol Exp Ther327 (3): 665–72. doi:10.1124/jpet.108.141333PMID 18784348.
  28. Jump up^  Benyó Z, Gille A, Kero J, Csiky M, Suchánková MC, Nüsing RM, Moers A, Pfeffer K, Offermanns S (2005). "GPR109A (PUMA-G/HM74A) mediates nicotinic acid-induced flushing"The Journal of Clinical Investigation115(12): 3634–40. doi:10.1172/JCI23626PMC 1297235Freely accessiblePMID 16322797.
  29. Jump up^  Benyó Z, Gille A, Bennett CL, Clausen BE, Offermanns S (2006). "Nicotinic acid-induced flushing is mediated by activation of epidermal langerhans cells". Molecular Pharmacology70 (6): 1844–9. doi:10.1124/mol.106.030833PMID 17008386.
  30. Jump up^  Hanson J, Gille A, Zwykiel S, Lukasova M, Clausen BE, Ahmed K, Tunaru S, Wirth A, Offermanns S (2010). "Nicotinic acid- and monomethyl fumarate-induced flushing involves GPR109A expressed by keratinocytes and COX-2-dependent prostanoid formation in mice"The Journal of Clinical Investigation120 (8): 2910–9. doi:10.1172/JCI42273PMC 2912194Freely accessiblePMID 20664170.
  31. Jump up^  Maciejewski-Lenoir D, Richman JG, Hakak Y, Gaidarov I, Behan DP, Connolly DT (2006). "Langerhans cells release prostaglandin D2 in response to nicotinic acid". The Journal of Investigative Dermatology126 (12): 2637–46. doi:10.1038/sj.jid.5700586PMID 17008871.
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  35. Jump up^  Mittal MK, Florin T, Perrone J, Delgado JH, Osterhoudt KC (2007). "Toxicity from the use of niacin to beat urine drug screening". Ann Emerg Med50 (5): 587–90. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2007.01.014PMID 17418450.
  36. Jump up^  Gass JD (2003). "Nicotinic acid maculopathy". Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)23 (6 Suppl): 500–10. PMID 15035390.
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  38. Jump up^  Wise A, Foord SM, Fraser NJ, Barnes AA, Elshourbagy N, Eilert M, Ignar DM, Murdock PR, Steplewski K, Green A, Brown AJ, Dowell SJ, Szekeres PG, Hassall DG, Marshall FH, Wilson S, Pike NB (2003). "Molecular identification of high and low affinity receptors for nicotinic acid". The Journal of Biological Chemistry278 (11): 9869–74. doi:10.1074/jbc.M210695200PMID 12522134.
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  42. Jump up^  Rubic T, Trottmann M, Lorenz RL (2004). "Stimulation of CD36 and the key effector of reverse cholesterol transport ATP-binding cassette A1 in monocytoid cells by niacin". Biochemical Pharmacology67 (3): 411–9. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2003.09.014PMID 15037193.
  43. Jump up^  Barter P, Gotto AM, LaRosa JC, Maroni J, Szarek M, Grundy SM, Kastelein JJ, Bittner V, Fruchart JC (2007). "HDL cholesterol, very low levels of LDL cholesterol, and cardiovascular events". The New England Journal of Medicine357 (13): 1301–10. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa064278PMID 17898099.
  44. Jump up^  Jafri H, Alsheikh-Ali AA, Karas RH (2010). "Meta-analysis: Statin therapy does not alter the association between low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased cardiovascular risk". Annals of Internal Medicine153 (12): 800–8. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-153-12-201012210-00006PMID 21173414.
  45. Jump up^  Wu BJ, Yan L, Charlton F, Witting P, Barter PJ, Rye KA (2010). "Evidence that niacin inhibits acute vascular inflammation and improves endothelial dysfunction independent of changes in plasma lipids". Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology30 (5): 968–75. doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.109.201129PMID 20167660.
  46. Jump up^  Gustafson B (2010). "Adipose tissue, inflammation and atherosclerosis". Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis17 (4): 332–41. doi:10.5551/jat.3939PMID 20124732.
  47. Jump up^  Fu L, Doreswamy V, Prakash R (2014). "The biochemical pathways of central nervous system neural degeneration in niacin deficiency"Neural Regen Res9 (16): 1509–1513. doi:10.4103/1673-5374.139475PMC 4192966Freely accessiblePMID 25317166Recent evidences suggest that niacin administration may up-regulate the expression of BDNF-TrkB. ... At present, we can safely raise the possibility that niacin-mediated neural growth by the BDNF-TrkB pathway could be at least partially mediated by enhanced HDL-C levels.
  48. Jump up^  Creider, JC; Hegele, RA; Joy, TR (September 2012). "Niacin: another look at an underutilized lipid-lowering medication.". Nature reviews. Endocrinology8 (9): 517–28. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2012.22PMID 22349076.
  49. Jump up^  Jacobson, EL (2007). "Niacin"Linus Pauling Institute. Retrieved 31 March 2008.
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  52. Jump up^  http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/drugsatfda/index.cfm?fuseaction=Search.SearchAction&SearchType=BasicSearch&SearchTerm=NIACIN
  53. Jump up^  Study Finds Extended Release Niacin, but not IHN, Effective in Lowering Cholesterol Levels
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  55. Jump up^  "A case for immediate-release niacin". Heart Lung41: 95–8. 2012. doi:10.1016/j.hrtlng.2010.07.019PMID 21414665.
  56. Jump up^  Pharmacokinetics and dose recommendations of Niaspan® in chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients
  57. Jump up^  Niaspan (Niacin) Drug Information: Description, User Reviews, Drug Side Effects, Interactions – Prescribing Information at RxList
  58. Jump up^  About NIASPAN® (niacin extended-release)
  59. Jump up^  Lai E, De Lepeleire I, Crumley TM, Liu F, Wenning LA, Michiels N, Vets E, O'Neill G, Wagner JA, Gottesdiener K (2007). "Suppression of niacin-induced vasodilation with an antagonist to prostaglandin D2 receptor subtype 1". Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics81 (6): 849–57. doi:10.1038/sj.clpt.6100180PMID 17392721.
  60. Jump up^  Paolini JF, Bays HE, Ballantyne CM, Davidson M, Pasternak R, Maccubbin D, Norquist JM, Lai E, Waters MG, Kuznetsova O, Sisk CM, Mitchel YB (November 2008). "Extended-release niacin/laropiprant: reducing niacin-induced flushing to better realize the benefit of niacin in improving cardiovascular risk factors". Cardiol Clin26 (4): 547–60. doi:10.1016/j.ccl.2008.06.007PMID 19031552.
  61. Jump up^  Kamanna VS, Vo A, Kashyap ML (2008). "Nicotinic acid: Recent developments". Current Opinion in Cardiology23 (4): 393–8. doi:10.1097/HCO.0b013e3283021c82PMID 18520725..
  62. Jump up^  Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events HPS2-THRIVE – Full Text View – ClinicalTrials.gov
  63. Jump up^  Medscape: Medscape Access
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  65. Jump up^  Taheri, R (15 January 2003). "No-Flush Niacin for the Treatment of Hyperlipidemia"Medscape. Retrieved 31 March 2008.
  66. Jump up^  Kruse W, Kruse W, Raetzer H, Heuck CC, Oster P, Schellenberg B, Schlierf G (1979). "Nocturnal inhibition of lipolysis in man by nicotinic acid and derivatives". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology16 (1): 11–15. doi:10.1007/BF00644960PMID 499296.
  67. Jump up^  Meyers CD, Carr MC, Park S, Brunzell JD (2003). "Varying cost and free nicotinic acid content in over-the-counter niacin preparations for dyslipidemia" (PDF)Annals of Internal Medicine139 (12): 996–1002. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-139-12-200312160-00009PMID 14678919.
  68. Jump up^  Benjó AM, Maranhão RC, Coimbra SR, Andrade AC, Favarato D, Molina MS, Brandizzi LI, da Luz PL (2006). "Accumulation of chylomicron remnants and impaired vascular reactivity occur in subjects with isolated low HDL cholesterol: effects of niacin treatment". Atherosclerosis187 (1): 116–122. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2005.08.025PMID 16458316.
  69. Jump up^  F. Aguilar; U.R. Charrondiere; B. Dusemund; P. Galtier; J. Gilbert; D.M. Gott; S. Grilli; R. Guertler; G.E.N. Kass; J. Koenig; C. Lambré; J-C. Larsen; J-C. Leblanc; A. Mortensen; D. Parent-Massin; I. Pratt; I.M.C.M. Rietjens; I. Stankovic; P. Tobback; T. Verguieva; R.A. Woutersen (2009). "Inositol hexanicotinate (inositol hexaniacinate) as a source of niacin (vitamin B3) added for nutritional purposes in food supplements" (PDF)The EFSA Journal949: 1–20.
  70. Jump up^  Knip M, Douek IF, Moore WP, Gillmor HA, McLean AE, Bingley PJ, Gale EA (2000). "Safety of high-dose nicotinamide: a review". Diabetologia43 (11): 1337–45. doi:10.1007/s001250051536PMID 11126400.
  71. Jump up^  Diet & Fitness today. "Niacin in beer".
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  75. Jump up^  Samuel M. McElvain (1941). "Nicotinic Acid" (PDF)Org. Synth.Coll. Vol.1, p. 385
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  77. Jump up^  Dr. Joseph Goldberger and the war on Pellagra – Office of NIH History
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  79. Jump up^  "Niacin and Nicotinic Acid"Journal of the American Medical Association. American Medical Association. 118 (10): 823. March 7, 1942. doi:10.1001/jama.1942.02830100053014. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  80. Jump up^  "Niacin and Niacin Amide"Journal of the American Medical Association. American Medical Association. 118 (10): 819. March 7, 1942. doi:10.1001/jama.1942.02830100049011. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  81. Jump up^  Laguna J, Carpenter KJ (September 1951). "Raw versus processed corn in niacin-deficient diets"J. Nutr45 (1): 21–8. PMID 14880960.
  82. Jump up^  Altschul R, Hoffer A, Stephen JD (1955). "Influence of nicotinic acid on serum cholesterol in man". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics54 (2): 558–9. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(55)90070-9PMID 14350806.
  83. Jump up^  Vitamins B3 found in Meteorites http://canadajournal.net/science/vitamins-b3-found-meteorites-study-6534-2014/
  84. Jump up to:a b Offermanns S, Schwaninger M (2015). "Nutritional or pharmacological activation of HCA(2) ameliorates neuroinflammation". Trends Mol Med21(4): 245–255. doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2015.02.002PMID 25766751Neuroinflammatory cells express HCA2, a receptor for the endogenous neuroprotective ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) as well as for the drugs dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and nicotinic acid, which have established efficacy in the treatment of MS and experimental stroke, respectively. This review summarizes the evidence that HCA2 is involved in the therapeutic effects of DMF, nicotinic acid, and ketone bodies in reducing neuroinflammation.
  85. Jump up^  Chai JT, Digby JE, Choudhury RP (May 2013). "GPR109A and vascular inflammation"Curr Atheroscler Rep15 (5): 325. doi:10.1007/s11883-013-0325-9PMC 3631117Freely accessiblePMID 23526298As GPR109A's primary pharmacological ligand in clinical use, niacin has been used for over 50 years in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, mainly due to its favourable effects on plasma lipoproteins.
  86. Jump up^  Graff EC, Fang H, Wanders D, Judd RL (February 2016). "Anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2". Metab. Clin. Exp65 (2): 102–113. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2015.10.001PMID 26773933HCA2 is highly expressed on immune cells, including macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils and dermal dendritic cells, among other cell types. ... Recent studies demonstrate that HCA2 mediates profound anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of tissues.
  87. Jump up to:a b Wakade C, Chong R (December 2014). "A novel treatment target for Parkinson's disease". J. Neurol. Sci347 (1-2): 34–38. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2014.10.024PMID 25455298.
  88. Jump up^  Santolla MF, De Francesco EM, Lappano R, Rosano C, Abonante S, Maggiolini M (July 2014). "Niacin activates the G protein estrogen receptor (GPER)-mediated signalling". Cell. Signal26 (7): 1466–1475. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2014.03.011PMID 24662263Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, is the water soluble vitamin B3 used for decades for the treatment of dyslipidemic diseases. Its action is mainly mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A.

External links

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niacin

PRODIGY-5

ALL IN ONE NUTRITIONAL WITH TRANS-ARMOR® NUTRIENT TECHNOLOGY

BREAKTHROUGH TECHNOLOGY IN PRODIGY 5.

THE FIVE UNIQUE ATTRIBUTES

A revolutionary new product featuring five unique attributes that create an all-in-one nutritional experience for everyone, every day. Take advantage of the technology and know-how, and enjoy the benefits of the phytoplankton, antioxidants, vitamins, and energy you can feel in minutes with the new ForeverGreen product: Prodigy-5.

Vitamins in Prodigy-5

We all know that vitamins and minerals are essential to our overall health, yet many of us are left not getting most of the vitamins and minerals we need through our normal eating habits. Prodigy-5 features a unique blend of vitamins and minerals that were each specifically chosen using the best peer reviewed scientific research available to support your general and eye health.  

Technology & Know-how behind Prodigy-5

​Adam Saucedo, M.D., has teamed up with the brilliant mind of Balamurali Ambati, M.D., PhD, MBA to bring you the exclusive TransArmor™ Nutrient Technology, found only in Prodigy-5. The patent-pending TransArmor™ technology increases the transit time of nutrients through the digestive system and primes the body for increased absorption of these nutrients.

Antioxidants in Prodigy-5

Prodigy-5 features natural pomegranate and raspberry for a bold flavor that also delivers powerful antioxidants! Antioxidants help to rid the body of damaging free radicals. Antioxidants become a powerful defense system to these free radicals, which if left unchallenged, can contribute to the cause of a range of health problems. Raspberries and pomegranates, Marine phytoplankton, Curcuma.

Phytoplankton in Prodigy-5

The most fundamental nutrient on the planet, phytoplankton are microscopic plant-based organisms that generate most of the world’s oxygen. Phytoplankton, found naturally in both salt and fresh water, are a viable source of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and other micronutrients.

Energy of the Prodigy-5

Prodigy-5 features natural green tea extract, which is known to help increase energy and mental focus. It helps provide the alertness associated with caffeine without the jittery side effects! Green tea has a range of health benefits, and also contains powerful antioxidants, making it the perfect way to get a little extra boost with your daily dose of Prodigy-5.

PRODIGY-5 DEVELOPED BY MEDICAL INDUSTRY LEADERS

Prodigy-5 revolutionaly Trans-Armor™ nutrient technology, developed by medical industry leader doctors aids the body in absorbing more of the nutrition than it normally would, thereby increasing efficiencies and overall health.

In addition to this scientifically proven technology, Prodigy-5 is considered an all-in-one nutritional habit.

Dr. Ambati, child prodigy, and ForeverGreen’s own Research Scientist Adam Saucedo have partnered together and developed what is being called the check-mate in the conversation of nutrition, Prodigy-5.

DR. AMBATI

CHILD PRODIGY

Dr. Ambati started calculus at age 4, graduated high school at age 11, pre-med age 13, med-school at 14 and was announced the Guinness Book of World Records holder for youngest doctor at age 17.

DR. ADAM SAUCEDO

RESEARCH SCIENTIST

Dr. Adam Saucedo is ForeverGreen’s own Research Scientist, founder and Chief Medical Adviser of the Center for the Heart and Founder of the New Life Center; the largest eating disorder clinic in the world.

DID YOU KNOW THAT HUMAN STOMACH ACIDS ARE STRONG ENOUGH TO DISSOLVE A RAZOR BLADE?

This means that your stomach acids act like a wall, preventing supplements and nutrients from passing to your blood stream and cells; only a percentage survives. Plain English? Your body gets only a fraction of the nutrients it digests. So, this begs the question, Can it be changed?

Can we use modern science to get more out of the digestive process? The answer is a very exciting yes!

Prodigy-5 with the perfect micro-nutrient formula featuring “Trans-Armor Nutrient Technology” that can quickly deliver the nutrients you need throughout your entire body and has the ability to increase the absorption and utilization of those nutrients to maximize your results. With this ground-breaking technology and formula, Prodigy-5 is the solution to the global problem of malnutrition.

With today’s nutritionally bankrupt foods, and the bodies inability to absorb 100% of even the healthiest whole foods, malnutrition effects every singe one of us. Whether you are healthy, wealthy, poor or starving, every person on this planet needs the nutritional revolution offered in Prodigy-5. It is literally for EVERYONE, EVERY DAY.

Prodigy-5 delivers a new TransArmor™ Nutrition bio-enhancing technology.
See how it works:

Prodigy-5 revolutionaly Trans-Armor™ nutrient technology, developed by medical industry leader doctors aids the body in absorbing more of the nutrition than it normally would, thereby increasing efficiencies and overall health. In addition to this scientifically proven technology, Prodigy-5 is considered an all-in-one nutritional habit.

Prodigy 5 contains the new "Trans-Armor™" delivery technology that provides nutrition and energy at the highest level of absorption to our body's cells, including:

• a micronutrient formula for general health,
• a micronutrient formula for eye health,
• an impressive antioxidant profile,
• an impressive and new bio-enhancing absorption technology


Does not contain artificial sweetners or additives. Sweetened with Pomegranate, Raspberry, and Stevia.

PRODIGY-5 HIGHLIGHT

PHYTOPLANKTON

One of those rare products that contains almost everything you need for life (and the rebuilding of cells) is marine phytoplankton.

Marine phytoplankton are one-cell plants that are too small to be seen individually without the aid of a microscope. Because they are microscopic, the body’s cells can absorb them immediately (bioavailability) and receive all of their valuable nutrients at the same time for maximum effectiveness.

The marine phytoplankton, also known as a “Superfood”, is according to NASA and plenty of scientific researches the most important plant and food in the world as it provides the earth with over 90% of it’s oxygen. Marine phytoplankton is not only an important source of oxygen it is a critical food source for ocean life and apparently, for us too.

There are very few (foods) that provide all, or even most, of the raw materials to make new cells and sustain the existing ones. A complete super food, these amazing plants contain more than 90 nutrients vital for a healthy body.

It contains all nine amino acids that the body cannot make. The essential fatty acids are also present (Omega-3 and Omega-6). Further it contains the most important vitamins and mineral nutrients. For example vitamin C, H, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, E, selenium, zinc, chromium, magnesium, calcium, nickel, iron and many more. (General informations about vitamins)

These valuable nutrients are essential for the production of healthy new cells. We all have, at one time or another, cellular or energy blockages, whether they be emotional or physical. And, among the functional ingredients identified from marine algae, natural pigments (NPs) have received particular attention.

Some benefits (but not all) of marine phytoplankton include:

Support Cardiovascular Health: The high level of antioxidants, amino acids, and high levels of omega-3 fatty acids are known to support a healthier cardiovascular system.

Promotes Healthy Skin: There are large amounts of bioflavonoids that can remove toxins from skin cells. Marine phytoplankton also contains riboflavin that reduces free radical attacks in skin cells.

Boost the Immune System: Alanine, beta-carotene, bioflavonoids, and vitamin E are all immune system enhancers found in this superfood.

Increase Energy: Marine phytoplankton detoxifies the body, and eliminates toxins from the cells. This will improve your energy and mood levels.

Stabilizes Blood Sugar Levels: Marine phytoplankton is really good for stabilizing blood sugar levels. Chromium helps to prevent and moderate against diabetes. Glutamic acids help to reduce alcohol and sugar cravings. Phenylalanine is a known sugar craving reducer.

Helps with Joint Health: Manganese helps to assist in joint mobility. Omega-6 fatty acids can relieve symptoms of arthritis. Pathogenic acid can reduce morning pain caused by arthritis. It will help a lot with joint mobility, and reducing pain and stiffness.

Liver Support: The arginine is found in this superfood and is known to help detoxify the liver.

Improves Brain Function: The high amount of omega-3 fatty acids improve brain function. The nucleic acids can enhance the memory. Phenylalanine improves mental clarity. Proline increases learning ability. Magnesium helps reduce mood swings.

More information about phytoplankton

PRODIGY-5 HIGHLIGHT

VITAMINS AND MINERALS

MICRONUTRIENT FORMULA FOR GENERAL HEALTH

Vitamin A • Vitamin C • Vitamin D • Vitamin E • Vitamin K • Vitamin B6 • Vitamin B12 • Folate • B1 (Thiamin) • B2 (Riboflavin) • B3 (Niacin)



MICRONUTRIENT FORMULA FOR EYE HEALTH

Lutein • Zeaxanthin • Copper • Zinc

Vitamins have specific role to play in the natural wear and tear of the body. There are many vitamin benefits that have a major impact on our overall health.
Vitamins are divided into two types: fat soluble and water soluble. Fat soluble vitamins (vitamin A, D, E and K) are stored in the fat tissues and liver. They can remain in the body up to six months. When the body requires these, they are transported to the area of requirement within the body with help of special carriers. Water soluble vitamins (B-vitamins and vitamin C) are not stored in the body like the fat soluble ones. They travel in the blood stream and need to be replenished everyday.


Below is a list of the 13 major vitamins and what each does for your body:

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin A (Beta-Carotene) is a natural antioxidant. It belongs to a class of pigments known as carotenoids which include the yellow, red and orange pigments that give many vegetables and plants their coloring. Vitamin A has been found to enhance immune system functions by supporting and promoting the activities of white blood cells as well as other immune related cells. It also helps to inhibit free radicals and their damaging effects which have been associated with arthritis, heart disease and the development and progression of malignant cells (cancer). Beta-carotene is a precursor for vitamin A (approximately 6 mg of ß-carotene = 1 mg vitamin A). Beta-carotene is best known for the body’s ability to convert it into retinal, which is essential for good vision and visual health, skin, and immune functions.
Natural sources of beta-carotene include carrots, pumpkin, sweet potato, spinach, kale, collard and turnip greens, and winter squash.

According to the National Institutes on Health, the average adult male should be getting 900mcg of vitamin C each day. Females should be getting 700mg a day. Individuals with special needs (women who are pregnant, smokers) may have different requirements and should consult their health professional.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) is a water-soluble B-vitamin involved with many cellular functions including carbohydrates metabolism, break down of amino acids, production of certain neurotransmitters and multiple enzyme processes (through the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate, or TPP). Thiamin can be found in small amounts in a wide variety of foods. Pork, sunflower seeds, yeast, peas and wheat are a few examples. Very little thiamin is stored within the body and must be consumed on a regular basis. A deficiency may result in weakness, loss of appetite, nerve degeneration and irritability.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin), like most B-vitamins, is involved in many cellular functions. Riboflavin is important in energy metabolism, folate synthesis, conversion of tryptophan to niacin and acts as important coenzymes (FAD/FMN) involved in many reactions. It can be found in liver, mushrooms, spinach, milk, eggs and grains. Because it is water-soluble, there is minimal storage of riboflavin within the body and when dietary intake is insufficient, deficiency can occur (usually accompanied with other vitamin deficiencies).

Prodigy-5 contains:Vitamin B3 (Niacin), also referred to as nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, is another water-soluble, B-vitamin involved with energy metabolism. The coenzymes of niacin (NAD/NADH/NADP/NADPH) are necessary for ATP synthesis (the body’s main energy source), synthesis of fatty acids and some hormones and the transport of hydrogen atoms. When niacin levels are low, the body can use L-tryptophan (an essential amino acid) to manufacture the vitamin. This process is not ideal, however, as it can rapidly deplete L-tryptophan in the body and take away from its other needs such as maintaining optimal levels of serotonin and melatonin. Niacin can be found in grains, liver, fish and chicken.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin which plays a variety of important roles in numerous biological processes. Humans cannot produce vitamin B6 so it must be obtained from the diet. Adequate sources of B6 include meats (salmon, turkey, chicken) and whole grain products, such as spinach, nuts and bananas. There are three forms of vitamin B6: pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxine (PN) and pyridoxamine (PM). Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) is the principal coenzyme form and has the most importance in human metabolism. It acts as a cofactor for many enzymatic reactions involving L-tryptophan, including L-tryptophan’s conversion to serotonin, an important neurotransmitter in the brain. Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate is also involved in other enzymatic reactions where other neurotransmitters, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), are synthesized. This plays a critical role in the functions of the nervous system.
Regarding cardiovascular health, there is an association between low vitamin B6 intake with increased blood homocysteine levels and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, which has been documented in several large observational studies. Vitamin B6, along with folic acid, vitamin B5, vitamin B12 and niacin, is involved in cell metabolism, enhances the immune system, supports the functions of the nervous system, aids in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy and promotes cognitive health. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the conduction of nerve impulses, regulation of steroid hormones, catabolism of glycogen to glucose, heme synthesis, and the synthesis/ metabolism of amino acids and neurotransmitters.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin essential for numerous processes in the body. The richest food sources of vitamin B12 include animal products such as meat, poultry and fish. It is not generally present in plant products with the exeption of peanuts and soybeans which absorb vitamin B12 from bacteria-filled nodules growing on the roots of these plants. Cyanocobalamin is the form most commonly used in supplements but it must be converted into methylcoblamin before it can join the metabolic pool and be properly utilized by the body. Vitamin B12 is also available as methylcobalamin, which is the methylated form, allowing it to become active quicker and be more effective. Vitamin B12 is necessary for countless processes within the body; it transfers methyl groups, plays a part in DNA synthesis and regulation, helps facilitate cell synthesis, maturation and division, helps convert homocysteine to methionine playing a role in cardiovascular protection, aids in the proper functioning of the nervous system, participates in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, helps produce SAMe for mood and cognitive health and also helps produce energy.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble antioxidant essential for human health and life. It has been proven necessary for healthy immune responses, wound healing, non-heme iron absorption (coming from grains and vegetables), reduction in allergic responses, development of connective tissue components such as collagen, and for the prevention of diseases. Vitamin C has also been shown to be important for cardiovascular health, reducing free radicalproduction and free radical damage, and good cognitive health and performance.
Due to human’s inability to produce vitamin C, it is essential to ingest sources containing vitamin C on a regular, if not daily basis. Natural sources of vitamin C include oranges, guavas, peppers (green, red, yellow), kiwis, strawberries, cantaloupes, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, and many other fruits and vegetables.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin essential for normal growth and development, the formation and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth, and influences the absorption and metabolism of phosphorus and calcium. It is necessary for proper muscle functioning, bone mineralization and stability, and multiple immune functions. Primarily the vitamin D used by the body is produced in the skin after exposure to ultraviolet light from sunlight. Lack of exposure to sunlight, reduced ability to synthesize vitamin D in the skin, age, low dietary intake, or impaired intestinal vitamin D absorption can result in deficiency. Deficiency has been associated with rickets (poor bone formation), porous or weak bones (osteopenia, osteoporosis), pain and muscle weakness, increased risk for cardiovascular disease, impaired cognitive health, and the development and progression of malignant cells (cancer).
Natural food sources of vitamin D are few; these foods are eggs from hens that have been fed vitamin D or fatty fish such as herrings, mackerel, sardines and tuna. Due to low vitamin D levels, countries such as the United States and Canada have opted to fortify foods such as milk and other dairy products, margarines and butters, some natural cereal and grain products.
According to the National Institutes on Health, the average adult should be getting 600IU of vitamin D each day. Individuals with special needs (the elderly, women who are pregnant) may have different requirements and should consult their health professional.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin E is one of the most powerful fat-soluble antioxidants in the body. It has been proven to help promote cardiovascular health, enhanced immune system function, aid in skin repair and to protect cell membranes from damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin E contributes to proper blood flow and clotting as well as cognitive health and function.
Natural sources of vitamin E include herbs such as cloves and oregano, whole grains, nuts and seeds, wheat germ, avocado, egg yolks, and vegetables/fruits such as dark leafy greens, peppers (red, yellow, orange, green), tomatoes, and mangos. Other sources are vegetable oils, margarines, and fortified cereals.

Prodigy-5 contains: Folic Acid is water-soluble vitamin important for many aspects of health. Sources of folic acid include dark, green leafy vegetables such as spinach or asparagus, fortified cereals, orange juice and legumes. Folic acid (folate) must go through a series of chemical conversions before it becomes metabolically active to be properly utilized within the body.
Folinic acid is the highly bioavailable, metabolically active derivative of folic acid and does not require the action of the enzyme dihydrofolinate reductase to become active, so it’s not affected by medicines and herbs that inhibit this enzyme. Adequate folate is necessary for proper DNA and RNA synthesis in regards to fetal growth and development. Due to these effects, the U.S. Public Health Service recommends all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 mcg of folic acid daily to prevent neural tube defects.
In addition to its clear effects on fetal growth and development, folic acid also plays an important role in cardiovascular health. By aiding in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine, it has been shown to reduce the levels of homocysteine, a sulfur containing amino acid. In the absence of adequate folic acid levels, homocysteine levels increase and high homocysteine levels are associated with atherosclerosis and the reduced circulation of oxygen and nutrients to the heart, ears and other organs. These results have been documented in countless studies. Folic acid, along with vitamin B6, vitamin B5, vitamin B12 and niacin, is involved in cell metabolism, enhances the immune system, supports the functions of the nervous system, aids in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy and promotes cognitive health.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin K, a generic term for a group of fat soluble vitamins, are involved mostly in the process of blood clotting, but also needed in metabolic pathways of bones and other tissues. The most well known are vitamin K1, also known as phylloquinone, and vitamin K2, known as menaquinone. Vitamin D and vitamin K work together in bone metabolism and development. Vitamin K works against oral anticoagulants such as 4-hidroxikumarin, and excessive vitamin K intake, either through supplementation or a change in diet, can reduce the anticoagulant effect. Vitamin K1 is mainly found in leafy green vegetables (such as spinach, swiss chard and kale), avocado and kiwi fruit; vitamin K2 can be found in meat, eggs, and dairy and is also synthesized by bacteria in the colon.

More information about vitamins

PRODIGY-5 HIGHLIGHT

ANTIOXIDANTS


WHAT ARE OXIDANTS?

Oxidants are free radicals that either our bodies produce or we get from the environment. Our bodies create oxidants as a response to stress or poor diet, or we are exposed to oxidants through environmental factors like pollution. Oxidative damage is a contributing factor to many diseases, including muscle and tissue degeneration, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and many other health problems.


WHAT ARE FREE RADICALS?

Free radicals are atoms or groups of atoms with an odd (unpaired) number of electrons. They are like bullies that are low in energy and attack healthy cells and steal their energy to satisfy themselves. Free radicals cause damage to our blood vessels, which can lead to deposits of bad cholesterol and block arteries. Free radicals come in many shapes, sizes, and chemical configurations. What they all share is a voracious appetite for electrons, stealing them from any nearby substances that will yield them.

The human body naturally produces free radicals and the antioxidants to counteract their damaging effects. However, in most cases, free radicals far outnumber the naturally occurring antioxidants. In order to maintain the balance, a continuous supplemental source of external antioxidants are necessary in order to obtain the maximum benefits of antioxidants.


WHAT ARE ANTIOXIDANTS AND WHY DO WE NEED THEM?

Antioxidants are the nutrients’ police force! They are free radical scavengers! They get rid of the bullies! Antioxidants are like a million microscopic special ops on a mission to save your body from the inside out. The benefits of antioxidants are very important to good health, because if free radicals are left unchallenged, they can cause a wide range of illnesses and chronic diseases.

WHERE CAN WE FIND ANTIOXIDANTS?

Obtained through our foods and produced by are bodies, antioxidants are a powerful defense system.
Antioxidants can be found in flavonols (found in chocolate), resveratrol (found in wine), Ellagic acid (found in Raspberries and pomegranate), and lycopene (found in tomatoes). Other popular antioxidants include vitamins A (beta-carotene), C, E, and catechins.

GREAT SOURCES OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN PRODIGY-5

Marine phytoplankton, Raspberries, Pomegranates, Curcuma

Raspberries and pomegranates contain one of the most powerful antioxidants known, Ellagic acid. Ellagic acid is a potent natural antioxidant that can be found in raspberries and pomegranates. Ellagic acid has been shown to be an effective anti- mutagen and anti-carcinogen.

Anthocyanins (red flavonoid pigment found in plants) give pomegranates their red color and offer a strong serving of antioxidants. Punicalagins (a type of phenolic compound) specifically support cardiovascular and neurological health. Studies have shown that antioxidants 18. can play a role in reducing the cell damage of free radicals.

ANTIOXIDANTS AND AGING

Antioxidants are powerful molecules that support healthy aging in more ways than one. These potent compounds aid in an overall healthy lifestyle by supporting cellular health. Aging isn’t about your chronological age; it is more about the amount of stress in your life and the the function of your cells!

More information about antioxidants

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PRODIGY 5 PRICES


PRODIGY-5 Single Case
(One case contains 28 serving) prices
$ 75.95
€ 69.11
Prodigy 5 Single DEF small

PRODIGY-5 Double Case 
(One case contains 28 serving) prices
$ 149.95
€ 136.45
Prodigy 5 Double DEF small

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