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Riboflavin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Vitamin B2)
 
Riboflavin
Kekulé, skeletal formula of a minor riboflavin (-10-[(2S,3S,4R)-2,3,4-trihydroxypentyl]) tautomer
Names
IUPAC name
7,8-Dimethyl-10-[(2S,3S,4R)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxypentyl]benzo[g]pteridine-2,4-dione[1]
Identifiers
83-88-5 Yes
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
3DMet B01201
97825
ChEBI CHEBI:17015 Yes
ChEMBL ChEMBL1534 Yes
ChemSpider 431981 Yes
DrugBank DB00140 Yes
ECHA InfoCard 100.001.370
EC Number 201-507-1
6578
KEGG D00050 
MeSH Riboflavin
PubChem 493570
UNII TLM2976OFR Yes
Properties
C17H20N4O6
Molar mass 376.37 g·mol−1
Appearance Orange crystals
log P 0.095
Acidity (pKa) 9.888
Basicity (pKb) 4.109
Pharmacology
A11HA04 (WHO)
Hazards
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oil Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no code NFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 verify (what is Yes ?)
Infobox references
   
 
A solution of riboflavin.

Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is part of the vitamin B group. It is the central component of the cofactors FAD and FMN and as such required for a variety of flavoprotein enzyme reactions including activation of other vitamins. It was formerly known as vitamin G.[2]

As a chemical compound, riboflavin is a yellow-orange solid substance with poor solubility in water compared to other B vitamins. Visually, it imparts color to vitamin supplements (and bright yellow color to the urine of persons taking a lot of it).

The name "riboflavin" (often abbreviated to Rbf or RBF)[3][4] comes from "ribose" (the sugar whose reducedform, ribitol, forms part of its structure) and "flavin", the ring-moiety which imparts the yellow color to the oxidized molecule (from Latin flavus, "yellow"). The reduced form, which occurs in metabolism along with the oxidized form, is colorless.

Function

Riboflavin functions as a coenzyme, meaning that it is required for enzymes (proteins) to perform normal physiological actions. Specifically, the active forms of riboflavin flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) function as cofactors for a variety of flavoproteine enzyme reactions:

For the molecular mechanism of action see main articles Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)

Food sources

Food and beverages that provide riboflavin without fortification are milkcheeseeggsleaf vegetablesliverkidneyslegumesmushrooms, and almonds.[5]

The milling of cereals results in considerable loss (up to 60%) of vitamin B2, so white flour is enriched in some countries such as US by addition of the vitamin. The enrichment of bread and ready-to-eat breakfast cereals contributes significantly to the dietary supply of vitamin B2. Polished rice is not usually enriched, because the vitamin’s yellow color would make the rice visually unacceptable to the major rice-consumption populations. However, most of the flavin content of whole brown rice is retained if the rice is steamed (parboiled) prior to milling. This process drives the flavins in the germ and aleurone layers into the endosperm. Free riboflavin is naturally present in foods along with protein-bound FMN and FAD. Bovine milk contains mainly free riboflavin, with a minor contribution from FMN and FAD. In whole milk, 14% of the flavins are bound noncovalently to specific proteins.[6] Egg white and egg yolk contain specialized riboflavin-binding proteins, which are required for storage of free riboflavin in the egg for use by the developing embryo.

Riboflavin is added to baby foodsbreakfast cerealspastas and vitamin-enriched meal replacement products. It is difficult to incorporate riboflavin into liquid products because it has poor solubility in water, hence the requirement for riboflavin-5'-phosphate (E101a), a more soluble form of riboflavin. Riboflavin is also used as a food coloring and as such is designated in Europe as the E number E101.[7]

Dietary reference intake

The Food and Nutrition Board of the U.S. Institute of Medicine updated Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in 1998. The current EARs for riboflavin for women and men ages 14 and up are 0.9 mg/day and 1.1 mg/day, respectively; the RDAs are 1.1 and 1.3 mg/day. RDAs are higher than EARs so as to identify amounts that will cover people with higher than average requirements. RDA for pregnancy equals 1.4 mg/day. RDA for lactation equals 1.6 mg/day. For infants up to 12 months the Adequate Intake (AI) is 0.3-0.4 mg/day and for children ages 1–13 years the RDA increases with age from 0.5 to 0.9 mg/day. Collectively the EARs, RDAs and ULs (see Toxicity) are referred to as Dietary Reference Intakes.[8][9]

For U.S. food and dietary supplement labeling purposes the amount in a serving is expressed as a percent of Daily Value (%DV). For riboflavin labeling purposes 100% of the Daily Value was 1.7 mg, but as of May 2016 it has been revised to 1.3 mg. A table of the pre-change adult Daily Values is provided at Reference Daily Intake. Food and supplement companies have until July 2018 to comply with the change.

Deficiency

Signs and symptoms

In humans

Mild deficiencies can exceed 50% of the population in third world countries and in refugee situations. Deficiency is uncommon in the United States and in other countries that have wheat flour, bread, pasta, corn meal or rice enrichment regulations. In the U.S., starting in the 1940s, flour, corn meal and rice have been fortified with B vitamins as a means of restoring some of what is lost in milling, bleaching and other processing. For adults 20 and older, average intake from food and beverages is 1.8 mg/day for women and 2.5 mg/day for men. An estimated 23% consume a riboflavin-containing dietary supplement that provides on average 10 mg. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services conducts National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey every two years and reports food results in a series of reports referred to as "What We Eat In America." From NHANES 2011–2012, the latest for which data has been reported, estimates are that 8% of women and 3% of men consume less than the RDA. When compared to the lower Estimated Average Requirements, fewer than 3% do not achieve the EAR level. However, anyone choosing a gluten-free or low gluten diet should as a precaution take a multi-vitamin/mineral dietary supplement which provides 100% DV for riboflavin and other B vitamins.

Riboflavin deficiency (also called ariboflavinosis) results in stomatitis including painful red tongue with sore throat, chapped and fissured lips (cheilosis), and inflammation of the corners of the mouth (angular stomatitis). There can be oily scaly skin rashes on the scrotumvulvaphiltrum of the lip, or the nasolabial folds. The eyes can become itchy, watery, bloodshot and sensitive to light.[10] Due to interference with iron absorption, even mild to moderate riboflavin deficiency results in an anemia with normal cell size and normal hemoglobin content (i.e. normochromic normocytic anemia). This is distinct from anemia caused by deficiency of folic acid (B9) or cyanocobalamin (B12), which causes anemia with large blood cells (megaloblastic anemia).[11] Deficiency of riboflavin during pregnancy can result in birth defects including congenital heart defects[12] and limb deformities.[13]

The stomatitis symptoms are similar to those seen in pellagra, which is caused by niacin (B3) deficiency. Therefore, riboflavin deficiency is sometimes called "pellagra sine pellagra" (pellagra without pellagra), because it causes stomatitis but not widespread peripheral skin lesions characteristic of niacin deficiency.[10]

Riboflavin has been noted to prolong recovery from malaria,[14] despite preventing growth of plasmodium (the malaria parasite).[15]

In other animals

In other animals, riboflavin deficiency results in lack of growth,[16] failure to thrive, and eventual death. Experimental riboflavin deficiency in dogs results in growth failure, weakness, ataxia, and inability to stand. The animals collapse, become comatose, and die. During the deficiency state, dermatitis develops together with hair loss. Other signs include corneal opacity, lenticular cataracts, hemorrhagic adrenals, fatty degeneration of the kidney and liver, and inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract.[17] Post-mortem studies in rhesus monkeys fed a riboflavin-deficient diet revealed about one-third the normal amount of riboflavin was present in the liver, which is the main storage organ for riboflavin in mammals.[18] Riboflavin deficiency in birds results in low egg hatch rates.[19]

Diagnosis

Overt clinical signs are rarely seen among inhabitants of the developed countries. The assessment of Riboflavin status is essential for confirming cases with unspecific symptoms where deficiency is suspected.

  • Glutathione reductase is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and FAD-dependent enzyme, and the major flavoprotein in erythrocyte. The measurement of the activity coefficient of erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EGR) is the preferred method for assessing riboflavin status.[20] It provides a measure of tissue saturation and long-term riboflavin status. In vitro enzyme activity in terms of activity coefficients (AC) is determined both with and without the addition of FAD to the medium. ACs represent a ratio of the enzyme’s activity with FAD to the enzyme’s activity without FAD. An AC of 1.2 to 1.4, riboflavin status is considered low when FAD is added to stimulate enzyme activity. An AC > 1.4 suggests riboflavin deficiency. On the other hand, if FAD is added and AC is < 1.2, then riboflavin status is considered acceptable.[9] Tillotson and Bashor[21] reported that a decrease in the intakes of riboflavin was associated with increase in EGR AC. In the UK study of Norwich elderly,[22] initial EGR AC values for both males and females were significantly correlated with those measured 2 years later, suggesting that EGR AC may be a reliable measure of long-term biochemical riboflavin status of individuals. These findings are consistent with earlier studies.[23]
  • Experimental balance studies indicate that urinary riboflavin excretion rates increase slowly with increasing intakes, until intake level approach 1.0 mg/d, when tissue saturation occurs. At higher intakes, the rate of excretion increases dramatically.[24] Once intakes of 2.5 mg/d are reached, excretion becomes approximately equal to the rate of absorption (Horwitt et al., 1950) (18). At such high intake a significant proportion of the riboflavin intake is not absorbed. If urinary riboflavin excretion is <19 µg/g creatinine (without recent riboflavin intake) or < 40 µg per day are indicative of deficiency.

Causes

Riboflavin is continuously excreted in the urine of healthy individuals,[25] making deficiency relatively common when dietary intake is insufficient.[25]Riboflavin deficiency is usually found together with other nutrient deficiencies, particularly of other water-soluble vitamins. A deficiency of riboflavin can be primary - poor vitamin sources in one's daily diet - or secondary, which may be a result of conditions that affect absorption in the intestine, the body not being able to use the vitamin, or an increase in the excretion of the vitamin from the body. Subclinical deficiency has also been observed in women taking oral contraceptives, in the elderly, in people with eating disorders, chronic alcoholism and in diseases such as HIV, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes and chronic heart disease. The Celiac Disease Foundation points out that a gluten-free diet may be low in riboflavin (and other nutrients) as enriched wheat flour and wheat foods (bread, pasta, cereals, etc.) is a major dietary contribution to total riboflavin intake. Phototherapy to treat jaundice in infants can cause increased degradation of riboflavin, leading to deficiency if not monitored closely.

Treatment

Treatment involves a diet which includes an adequate amount of riboflavin containing foods. Multi-vitamin and mineral dietary supplements often contain 100% of the Daily Value for riboflavin, and can be used by persons concerned about an inadequate diet. Over-the-counter dietary supplements are available in the United States with doses as high as 100 mg (5882% of Daily Value), but there is no evidence that these high doses have any additional benefit for healthy people.

Medical uses

Riboflavin has been used in several clinical and therapeutic situations. For over 30 years, riboflavin supplements have been used as part of the phototherapy treatment of neonatal jaundice. The light used to irradiate the infants breaks down not only bilirubin, the toxin causing the jaundice, but also the naturally occurring riboflavin within the infant's blood, so extra supplementation is necessary.

One clinical trial found that high-dose riboflavin appears to be useful alone or along with beta-blockers in the prevention of migraine.[26][27] A dose of 400 mg daily has been used effectively in the prophylaxis of migraines, especially in combination with a daily supplement of magnesium citrate 500 mg and, in some cases, a supplement of coenzyme Q10.[28] However, two other clinical studies have failed to find any significant results for the effectiveness of B2 as a treatment for migraine.[29][30]

Riboflavin in combination with UV light has been shown to be effective in reducing the ability of harmful pathogens found in blood products to cause disease.[31][32][33] When UV light is applied to blood products containing riboflavin, the nucleic acids in pathogens are damaged, rendering them unable to replicate and cause disease.[33][34] Riboflavin and UV light treatment has been shown to be effective for inactivating pathogens in platelets and plasma, and is under development for application to whole blood. Because platelets and red blood cells do not contain a nucleus (i.e. they have no DNA to be damaged) the technique is well-suited for destroying nucleic acid containing pathogens (including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and white blood cells) in blood products.[35]

Corneal ectasia is a progressive thinning of the cornea; the most common form of this condition is keratoconus. Collagen cross-linking is a non-surgical treatment intended to slow progression of corneal ectasia by strengthening corneal tissue. The standard protocol calls for application directly to the eye of a 0.1% riboflavin solution for 30 minutes followed by 30 minutes of ultraviolet-A irradiation with a wavelength of 370 nm and power of 3 mW/cm2.[36]

Industrial uses

 
Fluorescent spectra of riboflavin
 
A solution of riboflavin in water (right) is yellow with chartreuse fluorescence under fluorescent room lighting. The beaker prepared at left holds a detergent in water, forming micelles that will show the passage of a visible laser beam.
 
A 473 nm 200 mW blue laser beam is directed into the two beakers from the left. The detergent shows the path of the beam by blue scattered light. The light from the riboflavin solution is intense green fluorescence showing along the path of this laser beam.

Because riboflavin is fluorescent under UV light, dilute solutions (0.015-0.025% w/w) are often used to detect leaks or to demonstrate coverage in an industrial system such a chemical blend tank or bioreactor. (See the ASME BPEsection on Testing and Inspection for additional details.)

Toxicity

In humans, there is no evidence for riboflavin toxicity produced by excessive intakes, in part because it has lower water solubility than other B vitamins, because absorption becomes less efficient as doses increase, and because what excess is absorbed is excreted via the kidneys into urine. Even when 400 mg of riboflavin per day was given orally to subjects in one study for three months to investigate the efficacy of riboflavin in the prevention of migraine headache, no short-term side effects were reported.[9][37][38] Although toxic doses can be administered by injection,[37] any excess at nutritionally relevant doses is excreted in the urine,[39] imparting a bright yellow color when in large quantities.

The Food and Nutrition Board of the U.S. Institute of Medicine sets Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (known as ULs) for vitamins and minerals when evidence is sufficient. In the case of riboflavin there is no UL, as there is no human data for adverse effects from high doses. The European Food Safety Authority reviewed the same safety question and also reached the conclusion that there was not sufficient evidence to set a UL for riboflavin.[40]

Industrial synthesis

 
Large cultures of Micrococcus luteus growing on pyridine (left) and succinic acid (right). The yellow pigment being produced in the presence of pyridine is riboflavin.

Various biotechnological processes have been developed for industrial scale riboflavin biosynthesis using different microorganisms, including filamentous fungi such as Ashbya gossypiiCandida famata and Candida flaveri, as well as the bacteria Corynebacterium ammoniagenes and Bacillus subtilis.[41] The latter organism has been genetically modified to both increase the bacteria's production of riboflavin and to introduce an antibiotic (ampicillin) resistance marker, and is now successfully employed at a commercial scale to produce riboflavin for feed and food fortification purposes. The chemical company BASF has installed a plant in South Korea, which is specialized on riboflavin production using Ashbya gossypii. The concentrations of riboflavin in their modified strainare so high, that the mycelium has a reddish/brownish color and accumulates riboflavin crystals in the vacuoles, which will eventually burst the mycelium. Riboflavin is sometimes overproduced, possibly as a protective mechanism, by certain bacteria in the presence of high concentrations of hydrocarbons or aromatic compounds. One such organism is Micrococcus luteus (American Type Culture Collection strain number ATCC 49442), which develops a yellow color due to production of riboflavin while growing on pyridine, but not when grown on other substrates, such as succinic acid.[42]

History

Vitamin B was originally considered to have two components, a heat-labile vitamin B1 and a heat-stable vitamin B2. In the 1920s, vitamin B2 was thought to be the factor necessary for preventing pellagra. In 1923[chronology citation needed]Paul Gyorgy in Heidelberg was investigating egg-white injury in rats; the curative factor for this condition was called vitamin H (which is now called biotin or vitamin B7). Since both pellagra and vitamin H deficiency were associated with dermatitis, Gyorgy decided to test the effect of vitamin B2 on vitamin H deficiency in rats. He enlisted the service of Wagner-Jauregg in Kuhn’s laboratory.[citation needed] In 1933,[chronology citation needed] Kuhn, Gyorgy, and Wagner found that thiamin-free extracts of yeast, liver, or rice bran prevented the growth failure of rats fed a thiamin-supplemented diet.

Further, the researchers noted that a yellow-green fluorescence in each extract promoted rat growth, and that the intensity of fluorescence was proportional to the effect on growth. This observation enabled them to develop a rapid chemical and bioassay to isolate the factor from egg white in 1933[chronology citation needed], they called it Ovoflavin. The same group then isolated the same preparation (a growth-promoting compound with yellow-green fluorescence) from whey using the same procedure (lactoflavin). In 1934[chronology citation needed] Kuhn’s group identified the structure of so-called flavin and synthesized vitamin B2.

 

See also

References

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  37. Jump up to:a b Unna, K; Greslin, JG (1942). "Studies on the toxicity and pharmacology of riboflavin". J Pharmacol Exp Ther76 (1): 75–80.
  38. Jump up^  Boehnke, C; Reuter, U; Flach, U; Schuh-Hofer, S; et al. (July 2004). "High-dose riboflavin treatment is efficacious in migraine prophylaxis: an open study in a tertiary care centre". European Journal of Neurology11 (7): 475–7. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2004.00813.xPMID 15257686.
  39. Jump up^  Zempleni J, Galloway JR, McCormick DB (Jan 1996). "Pharmacokinetics of orally and intravenously administered riboflavin in healthy humans". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The American Society for Nutrition. 63(1): 54–66. PMID 8604671.
  40. Jump up^  Tolerable Upper Intake Levels For Vitamins And Minerals (PDF), European Food Safety Authority, 2006
  41. Jump up^  Stahmann KP, Revuelta JL, Seulberger H (May 2000). "Three biotechnical processes using Ashbya gossypii, Candida famata, or Bacillus subtilis compete with chemical riboflavin production". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology53 (5): 509–516. doi:10.1007/s002530051649PMID 10855708.
  42. Jump up^  Sims GK, O'loughlin EJ (Oct 1992). "Riboflavin Production during Growth of Micrococcus luteus on Pyridine"Applied and Environmental Microbiology58 (10): 3423–3425. PMC 183117Freely accessiblePMID 16348793.

Further reading

  • Schoenen J, Jacquy J, Lenaerts M (Feb 1998). "Effectiveness of high-dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis. A randomized controlled trial". Neurology50 (2): 466–470. doi:10.1212/wnl.50.2.466PMID 9484373.

External links

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riboflavin 

PRODIGY-5

ALL IN ONE NUTRITIONAL WITH TRANS-ARMOR® NUTRIENT TECHNOLOGY

BREAKTHROUGH TECHNOLOGY IN PRODIGY 5.

THE FIVE UNIQUE ATTRIBUTES

A revolutionary new product featuring five unique attributes that create an all-in-one nutritional experience for everyone, every day. Take advantage of the technology and know-how, and enjoy the benefits of the phytoplankton, antioxidants, vitamins, and energy you can feel in minutes with the new ForeverGreen product: Prodigy-5.

Vitamins in Prodigy-5

We all know that vitamins and minerals are essential to our overall health, yet many of us are left not getting most of the vitamins and minerals we need through our normal eating habits. Prodigy-5 features a unique blend of vitamins and minerals that were each specifically chosen using the best peer reviewed scientific research available to support your general and eye health.  

Technology & Know-how behind Prodigy-5

​Adam Saucedo, M.D., has teamed up with the brilliant mind of Balamurali Ambati, M.D., PhD, MBA to bring you the exclusive TransArmor™ Nutrient Technology, found only in Prodigy-5. The patent-pending TransArmor™ technology increases the transit time of nutrients through the digestive system and primes the body for increased absorption of these nutrients.

Antioxidants in Prodigy-5

Prodigy-5 features natural pomegranate and raspberry for a bold flavor that also delivers powerful antioxidants! Antioxidants help to rid the body of damaging free radicals. Antioxidants become a powerful defense system to these free radicals, which if left unchallenged, can contribute to the cause of a range of health problems. Raspberries and pomegranates, Marine phytoplankton, Curcuma.

Phytoplankton in Prodigy-5

The most fundamental nutrient on the planet, phytoplankton are microscopic plant-based organisms that generate most of the world’s oxygen. Phytoplankton, found naturally in both salt and fresh water, are a viable source of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and other micronutrients.

Energy of the Prodigy-5

Prodigy-5 features natural green tea extract, which is known to help increase energy and mental focus. It helps provide the alertness associated with caffeine without the jittery side effects! Green tea has a range of health benefits, and also contains powerful antioxidants, making it the perfect way to get a little extra boost with your daily dose of Prodigy-5.

PRODIGY-5 DEVELOPED BY MEDICAL INDUSTRY LEADERS

Prodigy-5 revolutionaly Trans-Armor™ nutrient technology, developed by medical industry leader doctors aids the body in absorbing more of the nutrition than it normally would, thereby increasing efficiencies and overall health.

In addition to this scientifically proven technology, Prodigy-5 is considered an all-in-one nutritional habit.

Dr. Ambati, child prodigy, and ForeverGreen’s own Research Scientist Adam Saucedo have partnered together and developed what is being called the check-mate in the conversation of nutrition, Prodigy-5.

DR. AMBATI

CHILD PRODIGY

Dr. Ambati started calculus at age 4, graduated high school at age 11, pre-med age 13, med-school at 14 and was announced the Guinness Book of World Records holder for youngest doctor at age 17.

DR. ADAM SAUCEDO

RESEARCH SCIENTIST

Dr. Adam Saucedo is ForeverGreen’s own Research Scientist, founder and Chief Medical Adviser of the Center for the Heart and Founder of the New Life Center; the largest eating disorder clinic in the world.

DID YOU KNOW THAT HUMAN STOMACH ACIDS ARE STRONG ENOUGH TO DISSOLVE A RAZOR BLADE?

This means that your stomach acids act like a wall, preventing supplements and nutrients from passing to your blood stream and cells; only a percentage survives. Plain English? Your body gets only a fraction of the nutrients it digests. So, this begs the question, Can it be changed?

Can we use modern science to get more out of the digestive process? The answer is a very exciting yes!

Prodigy-5 with the perfect micro-nutrient formula featuring “Trans-Armor Nutrient Technology” that can quickly deliver the nutrients you need throughout your entire body and has the ability to increase the absorption and utilization of those nutrients to maximize your results. With this ground-breaking technology and formula, Prodigy-5 is the solution to the global problem of malnutrition.

With today’s nutritionally bankrupt foods, and the bodies inability to absorb 100% of even the healthiest whole foods, malnutrition effects every singe one of us. Whether you are healthy, wealthy, poor or starving, every person on this planet needs the nutritional revolution offered in Prodigy-5. It is literally for EVERYONE, EVERY DAY.

Prodigy-5 delivers a new TransArmor™ Nutrition bio-enhancing technology.
See how it works:

Prodigy-5 revolutionaly Trans-Armor™ nutrient technology, developed by medical industry leader doctors aids the body in absorbing more of the nutrition than it normally would, thereby increasing efficiencies and overall health. In addition to this scientifically proven technology, Prodigy-5 is considered an all-in-one nutritional habit.

Prodigy 5 contains the new "Trans-Armor™" delivery technology that provides nutrition and energy at the highest level of absorption to our body's cells, including:

• a micronutrient formula for general health,
• a micronutrient formula for eye health,
• an impressive antioxidant profile,
• an impressive and new bio-enhancing absorption technology


Does not contain artificial sweetners or additives. Sweetened with Pomegranate, Raspberry, and Stevia.

PRODIGY-5 HIGHLIGHT

PHYTOPLANKTON

One of those rare products that contains almost everything you need for life (and the rebuilding of cells) is marine phytoplankton.

Marine phytoplankton are one-cell plants that are too small to be seen individually without the aid of a microscope. Because they are microscopic, the body’s cells can absorb them immediately (bioavailability) and receive all of their valuable nutrients at the same time for maximum effectiveness.

The marine phytoplankton, also known as a “Superfood”, is according to NASA and plenty of scientific researches the most important plant and food in the world as it provides the earth with over 90% of it’s oxygen. Marine phytoplankton is not only an important source of oxygen it is a critical food source for ocean life and apparently, for us too.

There are very few (foods) that provide all, or even most, of the raw materials to make new cells and sustain the existing ones. A complete super food, these amazing plants contain more than 90 nutrients vital for a healthy body.

It contains all nine amino acids that the body cannot make. The essential fatty acids are also present (Omega-3 and Omega-6). Further it contains the most important vitamins and mineral nutrients. For example vitamin C, H, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, E, selenium, zinc, chromium, magnesium, calcium, nickel, iron and many more. (General informations about vitamins)

These valuable nutrients are essential for the production of healthy new cells. We all have, at one time or another, cellular or energy blockages, whether they be emotional or physical. And, among the functional ingredients identified from marine algae, natural pigments (NPs) have received particular attention.

Some benefits (but not all) of marine phytoplankton include:

Support Cardiovascular Health: The high level of antioxidants, amino acids, and high levels of omega-3 fatty acids are known to support a healthier cardiovascular system.

Promotes Healthy Skin: There are large amounts of bioflavonoids that can remove toxins from skin cells. Marine phytoplankton also contains riboflavin that reduces free radical attacks in skin cells.

Boost the Immune System: Alanine, beta-carotene, bioflavonoids, and vitamin E are all immune system enhancers found in this superfood.

Increase Energy: Marine phytoplankton detoxifies the body, and eliminates toxins from the cells. This will improve your energy and mood levels.

Stabilizes Blood Sugar Levels: Marine phytoplankton is really good for stabilizing blood sugar levels. Chromium helps to prevent and moderate against diabetes. Glutamic acids help to reduce alcohol and sugar cravings. Phenylalanine is a known sugar craving reducer.

Helps with Joint Health: Manganese helps to assist in joint mobility. Omega-6 fatty acids can relieve symptoms of arthritis. Pathogenic acid can reduce morning pain caused by arthritis. It will help a lot with joint mobility, and reducing pain and stiffness.

Liver Support: The arginine is found in this superfood and is known to help detoxify the liver.

Improves Brain Function: The high amount of omega-3 fatty acids improve brain function. The nucleic acids can enhance the memory. Phenylalanine improves mental clarity. Proline increases learning ability. Magnesium helps reduce mood swings.

More information about phytoplankton

PRODIGY-5 HIGHLIGHT

VITAMINS AND MINERALS

MICRONUTRIENT FORMULA FOR GENERAL HEALTH

Vitamin A • Vitamin C • Vitamin D • Vitamin E • Vitamin K • Vitamin B6 • Vitamin B12 • Folate • B1 (Thiamin) • B2 (Riboflavin) • B3 (Niacin)



MICRONUTRIENT FORMULA FOR EYE HEALTH

Lutein • Zeaxanthin • Copper • Zinc

Vitamins have specific role to play in the natural wear and tear of the body. There are many vitamin benefits that have a major impact on our overall health.
Vitamins are divided into two types: fat soluble and water soluble. Fat soluble vitamins (vitamin A, D, E and K) are stored in the fat tissues and liver. They can remain in the body up to six months. When the body requires these, they are transported to the area of requirement within the body with help of special carriers. Water soluble vitamins (B-vitamins and vitamin C) are not stored in the body like the fat soluble ones. They travel in the blood stream and need to be replenished everyday.


Below is a list of the 13 major vitamins and what each does for your body:

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin A (Beta-Carotene) is a natural antioxidant. It belongs to a class of pigments known as carotenoids which include the yellow, red and orange pigments that give many vegetables and plants their coloring. Vitamin A has been found to enhance immune system functions by supporting and promoting the activities of white blood cells as well as other immune related cells. It also helps to inhibit free radicals and their damaging effects which have been associated with arthritis, heart disease and the development and progression of malignant cells (cancer). Beta-carotene is a precursor for vitamin A (approximately 6 mg of ß-carotene = 1 mg vitamin A). Beta-carotene is best known for the body’s ability to convert it into retinal, which is essential for good vision and visual health, skin, and immune functions.
Natural sources of beta-carotene include carrots, pumpkin, sweet potato, spinach, kale, collard and turnip greens, and winter squash.

According to the National Institutes on Health, the average adult male should be getting 900mcg of vitamin C each day. Females should be getting 700mg a day. Individuals with special needs (women who are pregnant, smokers) may have different requirements and should consult their health professional.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) is a water-soluble B-vitamin involved with many cellular functions including carbohydrates metabolism, break down of amino acids, production of certain neurotransmitters and multiple enzyme processes (through the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate, or TPP). Thiamin can be found in small amounts in a wide variety of foods. Pork, sunflower seeds, yeast, peas and wheat are a few examples. Very little thiamin is stored within the body and must be consumed on a regular basis. A deficiency may result in weakness, loss of appetite, nerve degeneration and irritability.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin), like most B-vitamins, is involved in many cellular functions. Riboflavin is important in energy metabolism, folate synthesis, conversion of tryptophan to niacin and acts as important coenzymes (FAD/FMN) involved in many reactions. It can be found in liver, mushrooms, spinach, milk, eggs and grains. Because it is water-soluble, there is minimal storage of riboflavin within the body and when dietary intake is insufficient, deficiency can occur (usually accompanied with other vitamin deficiencies).

Prodigy-5 contains:Vitamin B3 (Niacin), also referred to as nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, is another water-soluble, B-vitamin involved with energy metabolism. The coenzymes of niacin (NAD/NADH/NADP/NADPH) are necessary for ATP synthesis (the body’s main energy source), synthesis of fatty acids and some hormones and the transport of hydrogen atoms. When niacin levels are low, the body can use L-tryptophan (an essential amino acid) to manufacture the vitamin. This process is not ideal, however, as it can rapidly deplete L-tryptophan in the body and take away from its other needs such as maintaining optimal levels of serotonin and melatonin. Niacin can be found in grains, liver, fish and chicken.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin which plays a variety of important roles in numerous biological processes. Humans cannot produce vitamin B6 so it must be obtained from the diet. Adequate sources of B6 include meats (salmon, turkey, chicken) and whole grain products, such as spinach, nuts and bananas. There are three forms of vitamin B6: pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxine (PN) and pyridoxamine (PM). Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) is the principal coenzyme form and has the most importance in human metabolism. It acts as a cofactor for many enzymatic reactions involving L-tryptophan, including L-tryptophan’s conversion to serotonin, an important neurotransmitter in the brain. Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate is also involved in other enzymatic reactions where other neurotransmitters, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), are synthesized. This plays a critical role in the functions of the nervous system.
Regarding cardiovascular health, there is an association between low vitamin B6 intake with increased blood homocysteine levels and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, which has been documented in several large observational studies. Vitamin B6, along with folic acid, vitamin B5, vitamin B12 and niacin, is involved in cell metabolism, enhances the immune system, supports the functions of the nervous system, aids in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy and promotes cognitive health. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the conduction of nerve impulses, regulation of steroid hormones, catabolism of glycogen to glucose, heme synthesis, and the synthesis/ metabolism of amino acids and neurotransmitters.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin essential for numerous processes in the body. The richest food sources of vitamin B12 include animal products such as meat, poultry and fish. It is not generally present in plant products with the exeption of peanuts and soybeans which absorb vitamin B12 from bacteria-filled nodules growing on the roots of these plants. Cyanocobalamin is the form most commonly used in supplements but it must be converted into methylcoblamin before it can join the metabolic pool and be properly utilized by the body. Vitamin B12 is also available as methylcobalamin, which is the methylated form, allowing it to become active quicker and be more effective. Vitamin B12 is necessary for countless processes within the body; it transfers methyl groups, plays a part in DNA synthesis and regulation, helps facilitate cell synthesis, maturation and division, helps convert homocysteine to methionine playing a role in cardiovascular protection, aids in the proper functioning of the nervous system, participates in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, helps produce SAMe for mood and cognitive health and also helps produce energy.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble antioxidant essential for human health and life. It has been proven necessary for healthy immune responses, wound healing, non-heme iron absorption (coming from grains and vegetables), reduction in allergic responses, development of connective tissue components such as collagen, and for the prevention of diseases. Vitamin C has also been shown to be important for cardiovascular health, reducing free radicalproduction and free radical damage, and good cognitive health and performance.
Due to human’s inability to produce vitamin C, it is essential to ingest sources containing vitamin C on a regular, if not daily basis. Natural sources of vitamin C include oranges, guavas, peppers (green, red, yellow), kiwis, strawberries, cantaloupes, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, and many other fruits and vegetables.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin essential for normal growth and development, the formation and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth, and influences the absorption and metabolism of phosphorus and calcium. It is necessary for proper muscle functioning, bone mineralization and stability, and multiple immune functions. Primarily the vitamin D used by the body is produced in the skin after exposure to ultraviolet light from sunlight. Lack of exposure to sunlight, reduced ability to synthesize vitamin D in the skin, age, low dietary intake, or impaired intestinal vitamin D absorption can result in deficiency. Deficiency has been associated with rickets (poor bone formation), porous or weak bones (osteopenia, osteoporosis), pain and muscle weakness, increased risk for cardiovascular disease, impaired cognitive health, and the development and progression of malignant cells (cancer).
Natural food sources of vitamin D are few; these foods are eggs from hens that have been fed vitamin D or fatty fish such as herrings, mackerel, sardines and tuna. Due to low vitamin D levels, countries such as the United States and Canada have opted to fortify foods such as milk and other dairy products, margarines and butters, some natural cereal and grain products.
According to the National Institutes on Health, the average adult should be getting 600IU of vitamin D each day. Individuals with special needs (the elderly, women who are pregnant) may have different requirements and should consult their health professional.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin E is one of the most powerful fat-soluble antioxidants in the body. It has been proven to help promote cardiovascular health, enhanced immune system function, aid in skin repair and to protect cell membranes from damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin E contributes to proper blood flow and clotting as well as cognitive health and function.
Natural sources of vitamin E include herbs such as cloves and oregano, whole grains, nuts and seeds, wheat germ, avocado, egg yolks, and vegetables/fruits such as dark leafy greens, peppers (red, yellow, orange, green), tomatoes, and mangos. Other sources are vegetable oils, margarines, and fortified cereals.

Prodigy-5 contains: Folic Acid is water-soluble vitamin important for many aspects of health. Sources of folic acid include dark, green leafy vegetables such as spinach or asparagus, fortified cereals, orange juice and legumes. Folic acid (folate) must go through a series of chemical conversions before it becomes metabolically active to be properly utilized within the body.
Folinic acid is the highly bioavailable, metabolically active derivative of folic acid and does not require the action of the enzyme dihydrofolinate reductase to become active, so it’s not affected by medicines and herbs that inhibit this enzyme. Adequate folate is necessary for proper DNA and RNA synthesis in regards to fetal growth and development. Due to these effects, the U.S. Public Health Service recommends all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 mcg of folic acid daily to prevent neural tube defects.
In addition to its clear effects on fetal growth and development, folic acid also plays an important role in cardiovascular health. By aiding in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine, it has been shown to reduce the levels of homocysteine, a sulfur containing amino acid. In the absence of adequate folic acid levels, homocysteine levels increase and high homocysteine levels are associated with atherosclerosis and the reduced circulation of oxygen and nutrients to the heart, ears and other organs. These results have been documented in countless studies. Folic acid, along with vitamin B6, vitamin B5, vitamin B12 and niacin, is involved in cell metabolism, enhances the immune system, supports the functions of the nervous system, aids in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy and promotes cognitive health.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin K, a generic term for a group of fat soluble vitamins, are involved mostly in the process of blood clotting, but also needed in metabolic pathways of bones and other tissues. The most well known are vitamin K1, also known as phylloquinone, and vitamin K2, known as menaquinone. Vitamin D and vitamin K work together in bone metabolism and development. Vitamin K works against oral anticoagulants such as 4-hidroxikumarin, and excessive vitamin K intake, either through supplementation or a change in diet, can reduce the anticoagulant effect. Vitamin K1 is mainly found in leafy green vegetables (such as spinach, swiss chard and kale), avocado and kiwi fruit; vitamin K2 can be found in meat, eggs, and dairy and is also synthesized by bacteria in the colon.

More information about vitamins

PRODIGY-5 HIGHLIGHT

ANTIOXIDANTS


WHAT ARE OXIDANTS?

Oxidants are free radicals that either our bodies produce or we get from the environment. Our bodies create oxidants as a response to stress or poor diet, or we are exposed to oxidants through environmental factors like pollution. Oxidative damage is a contributing factor to many diseases, including muscle and tissue degeneration, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and many other health problems.


WHAT ARE FREE RADICALS?

Free radicals are atoms or groups of atoms with an odd (unpaired) number of electrons. They are like bullies that are low in energy and attack healthy cells and steal their energy to satisfy themselves. Free radicals cause damage to our blood vessels, which can lead to deposits of bad cholesterol and block arteries. Free radicals come in many shapes, sizes, and chemical configurations. What they all share is a voracious appetite for electrons, stealing them from any nearby substances that will yield them.

The human body naturally produces free radicals and the antioxidants to counteract their damaging effects. However, in most cases, free radicals far outnumber the naturally occurring antioxidants. In order to maintain the balance, a continuous supplemental source of external antioxidants are necessary in order to obtain the maximum benefits of antioxidants.


WHAT ARE ANTIOXIDANTS AND WHY DO WE NEED THEM?

Antioxidants are the nutrients’ police force! They are free radical scavengers! They get rid of the bullies! Antioxidants are like a million microscopic special ops on a mission to save your body from the inside out. The benefits of antioxidants are very important to good health, because if free radicals are left unchallenged, they can cause a wide range of illnesses and chronic diseases.

WHERE CAN WE FIND ANTIOXIDANTS?

Obtained through our foods and produced by are bodies, antioxidants are a powerful defense system.
Antioxidants can be found in flavonols (found in chocolate), resveratrol (found in wine), Ellagic acid (found in Raspberries and pomegranate), and lycopene (found in tomatoes). Other popular antioxidants include vitamins A (beta-carotene), C, E, and catechins.

GREAT SOURCES OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN PRODIGY-5

Marine phytoplankton, Raspberries, Pomegranates, Curcuma

Raspberries and pomegranates contain one of the most powerful antioxidants known, Ellagic acid. Ellagic acid is a potent natural antioxidant that can be found in raspberries and pomegranates. Ellagic acid has been shown to be an effective anti- mutagen and anti-carcinogen.

Anthocyanins (red flavonoid pigment found in plants) give pomegranates their red color and offer a strong serving of antioxidants. Punicalagins (a type of phenolic compound) specifically support cardiovascular and neurological health. Studies have shown that antioxidants 18. can play a role in reducing the cell damage of free radicals.

ANTIOXIDANTS AND AGING

Antioxidants are powerful molecules that support healthy aging in more ways than one. These potent compounds aid in an overall healthy lifestyle by supporting cellular health. Aging isn’t about your chronological age; it is more about the amount of stress in your life and the the function of your cells!

More information about antioxidants

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PRODIGY 5 PRICES


PRODIGY-5 Single Case
(One case contains 28 serving) prices
$ 75.95
€ 69.11
Prodigy 5 Single DEF small

PRODIGY-5 Double Case 
(One case contains 28 serving) prices
$ 149.95
€ 136.45
Prodigy 5 Double DEF small

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