From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


A vitamin is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts. An organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when the organism cannot synthesize the compound in sufficient quantities, and it must be obtained through the diet; thus, the term "vitamin" is conditional upon the circumstances and the particular organism. For example, ascorbic acid (one form of vitamin C) is a vitamin for humans, but not for most other animal organisms. Supplementation is important for the treatment of certain health problems,[1] but there is little evidence of nutritional benefit when used by otherwise healthy people.[2]

By convention the term vitamin includes neither other essential nutrients, such as dietary mineralsessential fatty acids, or essential amino acids (which are needed in greater amounts than vitamins) nor the great number of other nutrients that promote health, and are required less often to maintain the health of the organism.[3] Thirteen vitamins are universally recognized at present. Vitamins are classified by their biological and chemical activity, not their structure. Thus, each "vitamin" refers to a number of vitamer compounds that all show the biological activity associated with a particular vitamin. Such a set of chemicals is grouped under an alphabetized vitamin "generic descriptor" title, such as "vitamin A", which includes the compounds retinalretinol, and four known carotenoids. Vitamers by definition are convertible to the active form of the vitamin in the body, and are sometimes inter-convertible to one another, as well.

Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. Some, such as vitamin D, have hormone-like functions as regulators of mineral metabolism, or regulators of cell and tissue growth and differentiation (such as some forms of vitamin A). Others function as antioxidants (e.g., vitamin Eand sometimes vitamin C).[4] The largest number of vitamins, the B complex vitamins, function as enzyme cofactors (coenzymes) or the precursors for them; coenzymes help enzymes in their work as catalysts in metabolism. In this role, vitamins may be tightly bound to enzymes as part of prosthetic groups: For example, biotin is part of enzymes involved in making fatty acids. They may also be less tightly bound to enzyme catalysts as coenzymes, detachable molecules that function to carry chemical groups or electrons between molecules. For example, folic acid may carry methylformyl, and methylene groups in the cell. Although these roles in assisting enzyme-substrate reactions are vitamins' best-known function, the other vitamin functions are equally important.[5]

Until the mid-1930s, when the first commercial yeast-extract vitamin B complex and semi-synthetic vitamin C supplement tablets were sold, vitamins were obtained solely through food intake, and changes in diet (which, for example, could occur during a particular growing season) usually greatly altered the types and amounts of vitamins ingested. However, vitamins have been produced as commodity chemicals and made widely available as inexpensive semisynthetic and synthetic-source multivitamin dietary and food supplements and additives, since the middle of the 20th century. Study of structural activity, function and their role in maintaining health is called vitaminology.[6]

List of vitamins

Each vitamin is typically used in multiple reactions, and therefore most have multiple functions.[7]

Vitamin generic
descriptor name
Vitamerchemical name(s)
(list not complete)
Solubility Recommended dietary allowances
(male, age 19–70)[8]
Deficiency disease Upper Intake Level
Overdose disease Food sources
Vitamin A Retinolretinal, and
four carotenoids
including beta carotene
Fat 900 µg Night blindnesshyperkeratosis, and keratomalacia[9] 3,000 µg Hypervitaminosis A Liver, orange, ripe yellow fruits, leafy vegetables, carrots, pumpkin, squash, spinach, fish, soya milk, milk
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Water 1.2 mg BeriberiWernicke-Korsakoff syndrome N/D[10] Drowsiness or muscle relaxation with large doses.[11] Pork, oatmeal, brown rice, vegetables, potatoes, liver, eggs
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Water 1.3 mg Ariboflavinosisglossitisangular stomatitis N/D   Dairy products, bananas, popcorn, green beans, asparagus
Vitamin B3 Niacinniacinamide Water 16.0 mg Pellagra 35.0 mg Liver damage (doses > 2g/day)[12] and other problems Meat, fish, eggs, many vegetables, mushrooms, tree nuts
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Water 5.0 mg[13] Paresthesia N/D Diarrhea; possibly nausea and heartburn.[14] Meat, broccoli, avocados
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine,
Water 1.3–1.7 mg Anemia[15]peripheral neuropathy 100 mg Impairment of proprioception, nerve damage (doses > 100 mg/day) Meat, vegetables, tree nuts, bananas
Vitamin B7 Biotin Water 30.0 µg Dermatitisenteritis N/D   Raw egg yolk, liver, peanuts, leafy green vegetables
Vitamin B9 Folic acidfolinic acid Water 400 µg Megaloblastic anemia and deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as neural tube defects 1,000 µg May mask symptoms of vitamin B12deficiency; other effects. Leafy vegetables, pasta, bread, cereal, liver
Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin,
Water 2.4 µg Megaloblastic anemia[16] N/D Acne-like rash [causality is not conclusively established]. Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk
Vitamin C Ascorbic acid Water 90.0 mg Scurvy 2,000 mg Vitamin C megadosage Many fruits and vegetables, liver
Vitamin D Cholecalciferol(D3),
Ergocalciferol (D2)
Fat 10 µg[17] Rickets and osteomalacia 50 µg Hypervitaminosis D Fish, eggs, liver, mushrooms
Vitamin E Tocopherolstocotrienols Fat 15.0 mg Deficiency is very rare; sterility in males and abortions in females, mild hemolytic anemia in newborn infants[18] 1,000 mg Increased congestive heart failure seen in one large randomized study.[19] Many fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds
Vitamin K phylloquinonemenaquinones Fat 120 µg Bleeding diathesis N/D Increases coagulation in patients taking 4-hidroxikumarin. Leafy green vegetables such as spinach, egg yolks, liver

Health effects

Vitamins are essential for the normal growth and development of a multicellular organism. Using the genetic blueprint inherited from its parents, a fetus begins to develop, at the moment of conception, from the nutrients it absorbs. It requires certain vitamins and minerals to be present at certain times. These nutrients facilitate the chemical reactions that produce among other things, skinbone, and muscle. If there is serious deficiency in one or more of these nutrients, a child may develop a deficiency disease. Even minor deficiencies may cause permanent damage.[21]

For the most part, vitamins are obtained with food, but a few are obtained by other means. For example, microorganisms in the intestine — commonly known as "gut flora" — produce vitamin K and biotin, while one form of vitamin D is synthesized in the skin with the help of the natural ultraviolet wavelength of sunlight. Humans can produce some vitamins from precursors they consume. Examples include vitamin A, produced from beta carotene, and niacin, from the amino acid tryptophan.[8]

Once growth and development are completed, vitamins remain essential nutrients for the healthy maintenance of the cells, tissues, and organs that make up a multicellular organism; they also enable a multicellular life form to efficiently use chemical energy provided by food it eats, and to help process the proteins, carbohydrates, and fats required for respiration.[4]


In those who are otherwise healthy, there is little evidence that supplements have any benefits with respect to cancer or heart disease.[2][22]Vitamin A and E supplements not only provide no health benefits for generally healthy individuals, but they may increase mortality, though the two large studies that support this conclusion included smokers for whom it was already known that beta-carotene supplements can be harmful.[22][23] While other findings suggest that vitamin E toxicity is limited to only a specific form when taken in excess.[24]

The European Union and other countries of Europe have regulations that define limits of vitamin (and mineral) dosages for their safe use as food supplements. Most vitamins that are sold as food supplements cannot exceed a maximum daily dosage. Vitamin products above these legal limits are not considered food supplements and must be registered as prescription or non-prescription (over-the-counter drugs) due to their potential side effects. As a result, most of the fat-soluble vitamins (such as the vitamins A, D, E, and K) that contain amounts above the daily allowance are drug products. The daily dosage of a vitamin supplement for example cannot exceed 300% of the recommended daily allowance, and for vitamin A, this limit is even lower (200%). Such regulations are applicable in most European countries.[25][26]

Dietary supplements often contain vitamins, but may also include other ingredients, such as minerals, herbs, and botanicals. Scientific evidence supports the benefits of dietary supplements for persons with certain health conditions.[1] In some cases, vitamin supplements may have unwanted effects, especially if taken before surgery, with other dietary supplements or medicines, or if the person taking them has certain health conditions.[1] They may also contain levels of vitamins many times higher, and in different forms, than one may ingest through food.[27]

Effect of cooking

Shown below is percentage loss of vitamins after cooking averaged for common foods such as vegetables, meat or fish.

Typical Maximum Nutrient Losses due to cooking [28]
[hide]Vitamin & Minerals Freeze Dry Cook Cook+Drain Reheat
Vitamin A 5% 50% 25% 35% 10%
Vit A- Retinol Activity Equivalent 5% 50% 25% 35% 10%
Vit A- Alpha Carotene 5% 50% 25% 35% 10%
Vit A- Beta Carotene 5% 50% 25% 35% 10%
Vit A- Beta Cryptoxanthin 5% 50% 25% 35% 10%
Vit A- Lycopene 5% 50% 25% 35% 10%
Vit A- Lutein+Zeaxanthin 5% 50% 25% 35% 10%
Vitamin C 30% 80% 50% 75% 50%
Thiamin 5% 30% 55% 70% 40%
Riboflavin 0% 10% 25% 45% 5%
Niacin 0% 10% 40% 55% 5%
Vitamin B6 0% 10% 50% 65% 45%
Folate 5% 50% 70% 75% 30%
Food Folate 5% 50% 70% 75% 30%
Folic Acid 5% 50% 70% 75% 30%
Vitamin B12 0% 0% 45% 50% 45%
Calcium 5% 0% 20% 25% 0%
Iron 0% 0% 35% 40% 0%
Magnesium 0% 0% 25% 40% 0%
Phosphorus 0% 0% 25% 35% 0%
Potassium 10% 0% 30% 70% 0%
Sodium 0% 0% 25% 55% 0%
Zinc 0% 0% 25% 25% 0%
Copper 10% 0% 40% 45% 0%

It should be noted however that some vitamins may become more "bio-available" – that is, usable by the body – when steamed or cooked. [29]

The table below shows whether various vitamins are susceptible to loss from heat—such as heat from boiling, steaming, cooking etc.—and other agents. The effect of cutting vegetables can be seen from exposure to air and light. Water-soluble vitamins such as B and C seep into the water when a vegetable is boiled.[30]

Vitamin Soluble in Water Exposure to Air Exposure to Light Exposure to Heat
Vitamin A no partially[clarification needed] partially[clarification needed] relatively stable
Vitamin C very unstable yes[clarification needed] yes[clarification needed] yes
Vitamin D no no[clarification needed] no[clarification needed] no
Vitamin E no yes yes no
Vitamin K no no yes no
Thiamine (B1) highly no  ? > 100 °C
Riboflavin (B2) slightly no in solution no
Niacin (B3) yes no no no
Pantothenic Acid (B5) quite stable  ? no yes
Vitamin B6 yes  ? yes  ?
Biotin (B7) somewhat  ?  ? no
Folic Acid (B9) yes  ? when dry at high temp
Vitamin B12 yes  ? yes no


Humans must consume vitamins periodically but with differing schedules, to avoid deficiency. The body's stores for different vitamins vary widely; vitamins A, D, and B12 are stored in significant amounts, mainly in the liver,[18] and an adult's diet may be deficient in vitamins A and D for many months and B12 in some cases for years, before developing a deficiency condition. However, vitamin B3 (niacin and niacinamide) is not stored in significant amounts, so stores may last only a couple of weeks.[9][18] For vitamin C, the first symptoms of scurvy in experimental studies of complete vitamin C deprivation in humans have varied widely, from a month to more than six months, depending on previous dietary history that determined body stores.[31]

Deficiencies of vitamins are classified as either primary or secondary. A primary deficiency occurs when an organism does not get enough of the vitamin in its food. A secondary deficiency may be due to an underlying disorder that prevents or limits the absorption or use of the vitamin, due to a "lifestyle factor", such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, or the use of medications that interfere with the absorption or use of the vitamin.[18] People who eat a varied diet are unlikely to develop a severe primary vitamin deficiency. In contrast, restrictive diets have the potential to cause prolonged vitamin deficits, which may result in often painful and potentially deadly diseases.

Well-known human vitamin deficiencies involve thiamine (beriberi), niacin (pellagra),[32] vitamin C (scurvy), and vitamin D (rickets).[33] In much of the developed world, such deficiencies are rare; this is due to (1) an adequate supply of food and (2) the addition of vitamins and minerals to common foods (fortification).[8][18] In addition to these classical vitamin deficiency diseases, some evidence has also suggested links between vitamin deficiency and a number of different disorders.[34][35]


In large doses, some vitamins have documented side-effects that tend to be more severe with a larger dosage. The likelihood of consuming too much of any vitamin from food is remote, but overdosing (vitamin poisoning) from vitamin supplementation does occur. At high enough dosages, some vitamins cause side-effects such as nauseadiarrhea, and vomiting.[9][36] When side-effects emerge, recovery is often accomplished by reducing the dosage. The doses of vitamins differ because individual tolerances can vary widely and appear to be related to age and state of health.

In 2008, overdose exposure to all formulations of vitamins and multivitamin-mineral formulations was reported by 68,911 individuals to the American Association of Poison Control Centers (nearly 80% of these exposures were in children under the age of 6), leading to 8 "major" life-threatening outcomes, but no deaths.[37]


Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble. In humans there are 13 vitamins: 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) and 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C). Water-soluble vitamins dissolve easily in water and, in general, are readily excreted from the body, to the degree that urinary output is a strong predictor of vitamin consumption.[38] Because they are not as readily stored, more consistent intake is important.[39] Many types of water-soluble vitamins are synthesized by bacteria.[40] Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of lipids (fats). Because they are more likely to accumulate in the body, they are more likely to lead to hypervitaminosis than are water-soluble vitamins. Fat-soluble vitamin regulation is of particular significance in cystic fibrosis.[41]


The discovery dates of the vitamins and their sources
Year of discovery Vitamin Food source
1913 Vitamin A (Retinol) Cod liver oil
1910 Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Rice bran
1920 Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Citrus, most fresh foods
1920 Vitamin D (Calciferol) Cod liver oil
1920 Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Meatdairy productseggs
1922 (Vitamin E) (Tocopherol) Wheat germ oil,
unrefined vegetable oils
1926 Vitamin B12 (Cobalamins) Livereggs, animal products
1929 Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone) Leaf vegetables
1931 Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) Meatwhole grains,
in many foods
1931 Vitamin B7 (Biotin) Meatdairy productseggs
1934 Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Meatdairy products
1936 Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Meatgrains
1941 Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) Leaf vegetables

The value of eating a certain food to maintain health was recognized long before vitamins were identified. The ancient Egyptians knew that feeding liver to a person would help cure night blindness, an illness now known to be caused by a vitamin A deficiency.[42] The advancement of ocean voyages during the Renaissanceresulted in prolonged periods without access to fresh fruits and vegetables, and made illnesses from vitamin deficiency common among ships' crews.[43]

In 1747, the Scottish surgeon James Lind discovered that citrus foods helped prevent scurvy, a particularly deadly disease in which collagen is not properly formed, causing poor wound healing, bleeding of the gums, severe pain, and death.[42] In 1753, Lind published his Treatise on the Scurvy, which recommended using lemons and limes to avoid scurvy, which was adopted by the British Royal Navy. This led to the nickname limey for British sailors. Lind's discovery, however, was not widely accepted by individuals in the Royal Navy's Arctic expeditions in the 19th century, where it was widely believed that scurvy could be prevented by practicing good hygiene, regular exercise, and maintaining the morale of the crew while on board, rather than by a diet of fresh food.[42] As a result, Arctic expeditions continued to be plagued by scurvy and other deficiency diseases. In the early 20th century, when Robert Falcon Scott made his two expeditions to the Antarctic, the prevailing medical theory at the time was that scurvy was caused by "tainted" canned food.[42]

During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the use of deprivation studies allowed scientists to isolate and identify a number of vitamins. Lipid from fish oil was used to cure rickets in rats, and the fat-soluble nutrient was called "antirachitic A". Thus, the first "vitamin" bioactivity ever isolated, which cured rickets, was initially called "vitamin A"; however, the bioactivity of this compound is now called vitamin D.[44] In 1881, Russian surgeon Nikolai Lunin studied the effects of scurvy at the University of Tartu in present-day Estonia.[45] He fed mice an artificial mixture of all the separate constituents of milk known at that time, namely the proteinsfatscarbohydrates, and salts. The mice that received only the individual constituents died, while the mice fed by milk itself developed normally. He made a conclusion that "a natural food such as milk must therefore contain, besides these known principal ingredients, small quantities of unknown substances essential to life."[45] However, his conclusions were rejected by his advisor, Gustav von Bunge, even after other students reproduced his results.[46] A similar result by Cornelius Pekelharing appeared in a Dutch medical journal in 1905, but it was not widely reported.[46]


In East Asia, where polished white rice was the common staple food of the middle class, beriberiresulting from lack of vitamin B1 was endemic. In 1884, Takaki Kanehiro, a British trained medical doctor of the Imperial Japanese Navy, observed that beriberi was endemic among low-ranking crew who often ate nothing but rice, but not among officers who consumed a Western-style diet. With the support of the Japanese navy, he experimented using crews of two battleships; one crew was fed only white rice, while the other was fed a diet of meat, fish, barley, rice, and beans. The group that ate only white rice documented 161 crew members with beriberi and 25 deaths, while the latter group had only 14 cases of beriberi and no deaths. This convinced Takaki and the Japanese Navy that diet was the cause of beriberi, but they mistakenly believed that sufficient amounts of protein prevented it.[47] That diseases could result from some dietary deficiencies was further investigated by Christiaan Eijkman, who in 1897 discovered that feeding unpolished riceinstead of the polished variety to chickens helped to prevent beriberi in the chickens.[32] The following year, Frederick Hopkins postulated that some foods contained "accessory factors" — in addition to proteins, carbohydrates, fats etc. — that are necessary for the functions of the human body.[42] Hopkins and Eijkman were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1929 for their discoveries.[48]

In 1910, the first vitamin complex was isolated by Japanese scientist Umetaro Suzuki, who succeeded in extracting a water-soluble complex of micronutrients from rice bran and named it aberic acid (later Orizanin). He published this discovery in a Japanese scientific journal.[49] When the article was translated into German, the translation failed to state that it was a newly discovered nutrient, a claim made in the original Japanese article, and hence his discovery failed to gain publicity. In 1912 Polish-born biochemist Casimir Funk, working in London, isolated the same complex of micronutrients and proposed the complex be named "vitamine". It was later to be known as vitamin B3 (niacin), though he described it as "anti-beri-beri-factor" (which would today be called thiamine or vitamin B1). Funk proposed the hypothesis that other diseases, such as rickets, pellagra, coeliac disease, and scurvy could also be cured by vitamins. Max Nierenstein a friend and reader of Biochemistry at Bristol University reportedly suggested the "vitamine" name (from "vital amine").[50]).[51] The name soon became synonymous with Hopkins' "accessory factors", and, by the time it was shown that not all vitamins are amines, the word was already ubiquitous. In 1920, Jack Cecil Drummond proposed that the final "e" be dropped to deemphasize the "amine" reference, after researchers began to suspect that not all "vitamines" (in particular, vitamin A) have an amine component.[47]

In 1930, Paul Karrer elucidated the correct structure for beta-carotene, the main precursor of vitamin A, and identified other carotenoids. Karrer and Norman Haworth confirmed Albert Szent-Györgyi's discovery of ascorbic acid and made significant contributions to the chemistry of flavins, which led to the identification of lactoflavin. For their investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2, they both received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1937.[52]

In 1931, Albert Szent-Györgyi and a fellow researcher Joseph Svirbely suspected that "hexuronic acid" was actually vitamin C, and gave a sample to Charles Glen King, who proved its anti-scorbutic activity in his long-established guinea pig scorbutic assay. In 1937, Szent-Györgyi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery. In 1943, Edward Adelbert Doisy and Henrik Dam were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of vitamin K and its chemical structure. In 1967, George Wald was awarded the Nobel Prize (along with Ragnar Granit and Haldan Keffer Hartline) for his discovery that vitamin A could participate directly in a physiological process.[48]


The term vitamin was derived from "vitamine", a compound word coined in 1912 by the Polish biochemist Kazimierz Funk[53] when working at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine. The name is from vital and amine, meaning amine of life, because it was suggested in 1912 that the organic micronutrient food factors that prevent beriberi and perhaps other similar dietary-deficiency diseases might be chemical amines. This was true of thiamine, but after it was found that other such micronutrients were not amines the word was shortened to vitamin in English.

Society and culture

Once discovered, vitamins were actively promoted in articles and advertisements in McCall'sGood Housekeeping, and other media outlets.[32] Marketers enthusiastically promoted cod-liver oil, a source of Vitamin D, as "bottled sunshine", and bananas as a “natural vitality food". They promoted foods such as yeast cakes, a source of B vitamins, on the basis of scientifically-determined nutritional value, rather than taste or appearance.[54] World War II researchers focused on the need to ensure adequate nutrition, especially in processed foods.[32]Robert W. Yoder is credited with first using the term vitamania, in 1942, to describe the appeal of relying on nutritional supplements rather than on obtaining vitamins from a varied diet of foods. The continuing preoccupation with a healthy lifestyle has led to an obsessive consumption of additives the beneficial effects of which are questionable.[33]

Governmental regulation

Most countries place dietary supplements in a special category under the general umbrella of foods, not drugs. As a result, the manufacturer, and not the government, has the responsibility of ensuring that its dietary supplement products are safe before they are marketed. Regulation of supplements varies widely by country. In the United States, a dietary supplement is defined under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994.[55] There is no FDA approval process for dietary supplements, and no requirement that manufacturers prove the safety or efficacy of supplements introduced before 1994.[32][33] The Food and Drug Administration must rely on its Adverse Event Reporting System to monitor adverse events that occur with supplements.[56] In 2007, the US Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) Title 21, part III took effect, regulating GMP practices in the manufacturing, packaging, labeling, or holding operations for dietary supplements. Even though product registration is not required, these regulations mandate production and quality control standards (including testing for identity, purity and adulterations) for dietary supplements.[57] In the European Union, the Food Supplements Directiverequires that only those supplements that have been proven safe can be sold without a prescription.[58] For most vitamins, pharmacopoeial standards have been established. In the United States, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) sets standards for the most commonly used vitamins and preparations thereof. Likewise, monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph.Eur.) regulate aspects of identity and purity for vitamins on the European market.


Nomenclature of reclassified vitamins
Previous name Chemical name Reason for name change[59]
Vitamin B4 Adenine DNA metabolite; synthesized in body
Vitamin B8 Adenylic acid DNA metabolite; synthesized in body
Vitamin F Essential fatty acids Needed in large quantities (does
not fit the definition of a vitamin).
Vitamin G Riboflavin Reclassified as Vitamin B2
Vitamin H Biotin Reclassified as Vitamin B7
Vitamin J CatecholFlavin Catechol nonessential; flavin reclassified as Vitamin B2
Vitamin L1[60] Anthranilic acid Non essential
Vitamin L2[60] Adenylthiomethylpentose RNA metabolite; synthesized in body
Vitamin M Folic acid Reclassified as Vitamin B9
Vitamin O Carnitine Synthesized in body
Vitamin P Flavonoids No longer classified as a vitamin
Vitamin PP Niacin Reclassified as Vitamin B3
Vitamin S Salicylic acid Proposed inclusion[61] of salicylate as an essential micronutrient
Vitamin U S-Methylmethionine Protein metabolite; synthesized in body

The reason that the set of vitamins skips directly from E to K is that the vitamins corresponding to letters F–J were either reclassified over time, discarded as false leads, or renamed because of their relationship to vitamin B, which became a complex of vitamins.

The German-speaking scientists who isolated and described vitamin K (in addition to naming it as such) did so because the vitamin is intimately involved in the coagulation of blood following wounding (from the Germanword Koagulation). At the time, most (but not all) of the letters from F through to J were already designated, so the use of the letter K was considered quite reasonable.[59][62] The table nomenclature of reclassified vitamins lists chemicals that had previously been classified as vitamins, as well as the earlier names of vitamins that later became part of the B-complex.

There are other missing B vitamins which were reclassified or determined not to be vitamins. For example, B9 is folic acid and five of the folates are in the range B11 through B16, forms of other vitamins already discovered, not required as a nutrient by the entire population (like B10, PABA for internal use[63]), biologically inactive, toxic, or with unclassifiable effects in humans, or not generally recognised as vitamins by science,[64] such as the highest-numbered, which some naturopath practitioners call B21 and B22. There are also nine lettered B complex vitamins (e.g. Bm). There are other D vitamins now recognised as other substances,[63] which some sources of the same type number up to D7. The controversial cancer treatment laetrile was at one point lettered as vitamin B17. There appears to be no consensus on any vitamins Q, R, T, V, W, X, Y or Z, nor are there substances officially designated as Vitamins N or I, although the latter may have been another form of one of the other vitamins or a known and named nutrient of another type.


Main article: Antinutrient

Anti-vitamins are chemical compounds that inhibit the absorption or actions of vitamins. For example, avidin is a protein in egg whites that inhibits the absorption of biotin.[65] Pyrithiamine is similar to thiamine, vitamin B1, and inhibits the enzymes that use thiamine.[66]

See also


  1. Jump up to: a b c Use and Safety of Dietary Supplements NIH office of Dietary Supplements.
  2. Jump up to: a b Fortmann, SP; Burda, BU; Senger, CA; Lin, JS; Whitlock, EP (12 Nov 2013). "Vitamin and Mineral Supplements in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: An Updated Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force". Annals of Internal Medicine. 159 (12): 824–34. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-159-12-201312170-00729PMID 24217421.
  3. Jump up ^ Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins; Charles William McLaughlin; Susan Johnson; Maryanna Quon Warner; David LaHart; Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-981176-1OCLC 32308337.
  4. Jump up to: a b Bender, David A. (2003). Nutritional biochemistry of the vitamins. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80388-5.
  5. Jump up ^ Bolander FF (2006). "Vitamins: not just for enzymes". Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 7 (10): 912–5. PMID 17086936.
  6. Jump up ^ Mosby's (2015-05-13). "Vitaminology". The free dictionary. Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. (2009).
  7. Jump up ^ Kutsky, R.J. (1973). Handbook of Vitamins and Hormones. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, ISBN 0-442-24549-1
  8. Jump up to: a b c d; padding-right: 18px; background-position: 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins. The National Academies, 2001.
  9. Jump up to: a b c "Vitamin A: Fact Sheet for Health Professionals"National Institute of Health: Office of Dietary Supplements. 5 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-03.
  10. Jump up ^ "Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins"The National Academies. 2001. Amount not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake.
  11. Jump up ^ "Thiamin, vitamin B1: MedlinePlus Supplements". U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.
  12. Jump up ^ Hardman, J.G.; et al., eds. (2001). Goodman and Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (10th ed.). p. 992. ISBN 0071354697.
  13. Jump up ^ Plain type indicates Adequate Intakes (A/I). "The AI is believed to cover the needs of all individuals, but a lack of data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake" (see Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins. The National Academies, 2001).
  14. Jump up ^ "Pantothenic acid, dexpanthenol: MedlinePlus Supplements". MedlinePlus. Retrieved 5 October 2009.
  15. Jump up ^ Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Vitamin B6. (15 September 2011). Retrieved on 2013-08-03.
  16. Jump up ^ Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Vitamin B12. (24 June 2011). Retrieved on 2013-08-03.
  17. Jump up ^ Value represents suggested intake without adequate sunlight exposure (see Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins. The National Academies, 2001).
  18. Jump up to: a b c d e The Merck Manual: Nutritional Disorders: Vitamin Introduction Please select specific vitamins from the list at the top of the page.
  19. Jump up ^ Gaby, Alan R. (2005). "Does vitamin E cause congestive heart failure? (Literature Review & Commentary)". Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients.
  20. Jump up ^ Rohde LE; de Assis MC; Rabelo ER (2007). "Dietary vitamin K intake and anticoagulation in elderly patients". Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 10 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e328011c46cPMID 17143047.
  21. Jump up ^ Gavrilov, Leonid A. (10 February 2003) Pieces of the Puzzle: Aging Research Today and Tomorrow.
  22. Jump up to: a b Moyer, VA (25 Feb 2014). "Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement". Annals of Internal Medicine. 160 (8): 558–64. doi:10.7326/M14-0198PMID 24566474.
  23. Jump up ^ Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, D; Gluud, LL; Simonetti, RG; Gluud, C (2007). "Mortality in Randomized Trials of Antioxidant Supplements for Primary and Secondary Prevention: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". JAMA. 297 (8): 842–57. doi:10.1001/jama.297.8.842PMID 17327526.
  24. Jump up ^ Sen, Chandan K.; Khanna, Savita; Roy, Sashwati (2006). "Tocotrienols: Vitamin E beyond tocopherols". Life Sciences. 78(18): 2088–98. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.12.001PMC 1790869free to read 2x" data-file-width="640" data-file-height="1000" style="border-style: none;">. PMID 16458936.
  25. Jump up ^; padding-right: 18px; background-position: 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">S. Getman (March 2011). EU Regulations on food supplements, health foods, herbal medicines. US Commercial Service. Retrieved February 2014.
  26. Jump up ^ Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft. Bundesrecht 817.022.104. Verordnung des EDI über Speziallebensmittel vom 23. Nov. 2005 Art. 22 Nahrungsergänzungsmittel. (in German)
  27. Jump up ^ Higdon, Jane (2011)Vitamin E recommendations at Linus Pauling Institute's Micronutrient Information Center
  28. Jump up ^; padding-right: 18px; background-position: 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">"USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors, Release 6" (PDF). USDA. USDA. Dec 2007.
  29. Jump up ^ Comparison of Vitamin Levels in Raw Foods vs. Cooked Foods. Retrieved on 3 August 2013.
  30. Jump up ^ Effects of Cooking on Vitamins (Table). Retrieved on 3 August 2013.
  31. Jump up ^ Pemberton, J. (2006). "Medical experiments carried out in Sheffield on conscientious objectors to military service during the 1939–45 war". International Journal of Epidemiology. 35 (3): 556–8. doi:10.1093/ije/dyl020PMID 16510534.
  1. Jump up to: a b c d e Wendt, Diane (2015). "Packed full of questions: Who benefits from dietary supplements?". Distillations Magazine. 1(3): 41–45. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  2. Jump up to: a b c Price, Catherine (2015). Vitamania: Our obsessive quest for nutritional perfection. Penguin Press. ISBN 978-1594205040.
  3. Jump up ^ Lakhan, SE; Vieira, KF (2008). "Nutritional therapies for mental disorders". Nutrition journal. 7: 2. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-7-2PMC 2248201free to read 2x" data-file-width="640" data-file-height="1000" style="border-style: none;">. PMID 18208598.
  4. Jump up ^ Boy, E.; Mannar, V.; Pandav, C.; de Benoist, B.; Viteri, F.; Fontaine, O.; Hotz, C. (2009). "Achievements, challenges, and promising new approaches in vitamin and mineral deficiency control". Nutr Rev. 67 (Suppl 1): S24–30. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00155.xPMID 19453674.
  5. Jump up ^ Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2001.
  6. Jump up ^ Bronstein, AC; et al. (2009).; padding-right: 18px; background-position: 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">"2008 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 26th Annual Report" (PDF). Clinical Toxicology. 47 (10): 911–1084. doi:10.3109/15563650903438566PMID 20028214. Archived from; padding-right: 18px; background-position: 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">the original (PDF) on 4 December 2010.
  7. Jump up ^ Fukuwatari T; Shibata K (2008). "Urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite contents as nutritional markers for evaluating vitamin intakes in young Japanese women". J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 54 (3): 223–9. doi:10.3177/jnsv.54.223PMID 18635909.
  8. Jump up ^ Bellows, L. & Moore, R. "Water-Soluble Vitamins". Colorado State University. Retrieved 7 December 2008.
  9. Jump up ^ Said HM; Mohammed ZM (2006). "Intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins: an update". Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 22 (2): 140–6. doi:10.1097/01.mog.0000203870.22706.52PMID 16462170.
  10. Jump up ^ Maqbool A; Stallings VA (2008). "Update on fat-soluble vitamins in cystic fibrosis". Curr Opin Pulm Med. 14 (6): 574–81. doi:10.1097/MCP.0b013e3283136787PMID 18812835.
  11. Jump up to: a b c d e Jack Challem (1997)."The Past, Present and Future of Vitamins"
  12. Jump up ^ Jacob, RA (1996). "Three eras of vitamin C discovery". Subcell Biochem. Subcellular Biochemistry. 25: 1–16. doi:10.1007/978-1-4613-0325-1_1ISBN 978-1-4613-7998-0PMID 8821966.
  13. Jump up ^ Bellis, Mary. Production Methods The History of the Vitamins. Retrieved 1 February 2005.
  14. Jump up to: a b 1929 Nobel lecture. Retrieved on 3 August 2013.
  15. Jump up to: a b Gratzer, Walter (2006). "9. The quarry run to earth". Terrors of the table: the curious history of nutrition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199205639. Retrieved 5 November2015.
  16. Jump up to: a b Rosenfeld, L. (1997). "Vitamine—vitamin. The early years of discovery". Clin Chem. 43 (4): 680–5. PMID 9105273.
  17. Jump up to: a b Carpenter, Kenneth (22 June 2004). "The Nobel Prize and the Discovery of Vitamins". Retrieved 5 October2009.
  18. Jump up ^ Suzuki, U.; Shimamura, T. (1911). "Active constituent of rice grits preventing bird polyneuritis". Tokyo Kagaku Kaishi. 32: 4–7; 144–146; 335–358.
  19. Jump up ^ Combs, Gerald (2008). The vitamins: fundamental aspects in nutrition and healthISBN 9780121834937.
  20. Jump up ^ Funk, C. and Dubin, H. E. (1922). The Vitamines. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Company.
  21. Jump up ^ The Official Website of the Nobel Prize.Paul Karrer-Biographical. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
  22. Jump up ^ Iłowiecki, Maciej (1981). Dzieje nauki polskiej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Interpress. p. 177. ISBN 83-223-1876-6.
  23. Jump up ^ Price, Catherine (Fall 2015). "The healing power of compressed yeast". Distillations Magazine. 1 (3): 17–23. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  24. Jump up ^ Legislation. (15 September 2009). Retrieved on 2010-11-12.
  25. Jump up ^ "Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS)"FDA. 20 August 2009. Retrieved 2010-11-12.
  26. Jump up ^ U.S. Food and Drug Administration. CFR – Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
  27. Jump up ^ not EUR-Lex – 32002L0046 – EN. Retrieved on 12 November 2010.
  28. Jump up to: a b Bennett, David.; padding-right: 18px; background-position: 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;">Every Vitamin Page. All Vitamins and Pseudo-Vitamins.
  29. Jump up to: a b Davidson, Michael W. (2004) Anthranilic Acid (Vitamin L)Florida State University. Retrieved 20-02-07.
  30. Jump up ^ Abbasi, Kamran (2003). "Rapid Responses to: Aspirin protects women at risk of pre-eclampsia without causing bleeding". British Medical Journal. 327 (7424): 7424. doi:10.1136/bmj.327.7424.0-h.
  31. Jump up ^ Vitamins and minerals – names and facts.
  32. Jump up to: a b B Vitamins. NeuroSoup (2013-04-15). Retrieved on 2015-11-30.
  33. Jump up ^ Vitamins: What Vitamins Do I Need?. Medical News Today. Retrieved on 2015-11-30.
  34. Jump up ^ Roth KS (1981). "Biotin in clinical medicine—a review". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34 (9): 1967–74. PMID 6116428.
  35. Jump up ^ Rindi G; Perri V (1961). "Uptake of pyrithiamine by tissue of rats". Biochem. J. 80 (1): 214–6. PMC 1243973free to read 2x" data-file-width="640" data-file-height="1000" style="border-style: none;">. PMID 13741739.





A revolutionary new product featuring five unique attributes that create an all-in-one nutritional experience for everyone, every day. Take advantage of the technology and know-how, and enjoy the benefits of the phytoplankton, antioxidants, vitamins, and energy you can feel in minutes with the new ForeverGreen product: Prodigy-5.

Vitamins in Prodigy-5

We all know that vitamins and minerals are essential to our overall health, yet many of us are left not getting most of the vitamins and minerals we need through our normal eating habits. Prodigy-5 features a unique blend of vitamins and minerals that were each specifically chosen using the best peer reviewed scientific research available to support your general and eye health.  

Technology & Know-how behind Prodigy-5

​Adam Saucedo, M.D., has teamed up with the brilliant mind of Balamurali Ambati, M.D., PhD, MBA to bring you the exclusive TransArmor™ Nutrient Technology, found only in Prodigy-5. The patent-pending TransArmor™ technology increases the transit time of nutrients through the digestive system and primes the body for increased absorption of these nutrients.

Antioxidants in Prodigy-5

Prodigy-5 features natural pomegranate and raspberry for a bold flavor that also delivers powerful antioxidants! Antioxidants help to rid the body of damaging free radicals. Antioxidants become a powerful defense system to these free radicals, which if left unchallenged, can contribute to the cause of a range of health problems. Raspberries and pomegranates, Marine phytoplankton, Curcuma.

Phytoplankton in Prodigy-5

The most fundamental nutrient on the planet, phytoplankton are microscopic plant-based organisms that generate most of the world’s oxygen. Phytoplankton, found naturally in both salt and fresh water, are a viable source of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and other micronutrients.

Energy of the Prodigy-5

Prodigy-5 features natural green tea extract, which is known to help increase energy and mental focus. It helps provide the alertness associated with caffeine without the jittery side effects! Green tea has a range of health benefits, and also contains powerful antioxidants, making it the perfect way to get a little extra boost with your daily dose of Prodigy-5.


Prodigy-5 revolutionaly Trans-Armor™ nutrient technology, developed by medical industry leader doctors aids the body in absorbing more of the nutrition than it normally would, thereby increasing efficiencies and overall health.

In addition to this scientifically proven technology, Prodigy-5 is considered an all-in-one nutritional habit.

Dr. Ambati, child prodigy, and ForeverGreen’s own Research Scientist Adam Saucedo have partnered together and developed what is being called the check-mate in the conversation of nutrition, Prodigy-5.



Dr. Ambati started calculus at age 4, graduated high school at age 11, pre-med age 13, med-school at 14 and was announced the Guinness Book of World Records holder for youngest doctor at age 17.



Dr. Adam Saucedo is ForeverGreen’s own Research Scientist, founder and Chief Medical Adviser of the Center for the Heart and Founder of the New Life Center; the largest eating disorder clinic in the world.


This means that your stomach acids act like a wall, preventing supplements and nutrients from passing to your blood stream and cells; only a percentage survives. Plain English? Your body gets only a fraction of the nutrients it digests. So, this begs the question, Can it be changed?

Can we use modern science to get more out of the digestive process? The answer is a very exciting yes!

Prodigy-5 with the perfect micro-nutrient formula featuring “Trans-Armor Nutrient Technology” that can quickly deliver the nutrients you need throughout your entire body and has the ability to increase the absorption and utilization of those nutrients to maximize your results. With this ground-breaking technology and formula, Prodigy-5 is the solution to the global problem of malnutrition.

With today’s nutritionally bankrupt foods, and the bodies inability to absorb 100% of even the healthiest whole foods, malnutrition effects every singe one of us. Whether you are healthy, wealthy, poor or starving, every person on this planet needs the nutritional revolution offered in Prodigy-5. It is literally for EVERYONE, EVERY DAY.

Prodigy-5 delivers a new TransArmor™ Nutrition bio-enhancing technology.
See how it works:

Prodigy-5 revolutionaly Trans-Armor™ nutrient technology, developed by medical industry leader doctors aids the body in absorbing more of the nutrition than it normally would, thereby increasing efficiencies and overall health. In addition to this scientifically proven technology, Prodigy-5 is considered an all-in-one nutritional habit.

Prodigy 5 contains the new "Trans-Armor™" delivery technology that provides nutrition and energy at the highest level of absorption to our body's cells, including:

• a micronutrient formula for general health,
• a micronutrient formula for eye health,
• an impressive antioxidant profile,
• an impressive and new bio-enhancing absorption technology

Does not contain artificial sweetners or additives. Sweetened with Pomegranate, Raspberry, and Stevia.



One of those rare products that contains almost everything you need for life (and the rebuilding of cells) is marine phytoplankton.

Marine phytoplankton are one-cell plants that are too small to be seen individually without the aid of a microscope. Because they are microscopic, the body’s cells can absorb them immediately (bioavailability) and receive all of their valuable nutrients at the same time for maximum effectiveness.

The marine phytoplankton, also known as a “Superfood”, is according to NASA and plenty of scientific researches the most important plant and food in the world as it provides the earth with over 90% of it’s oxygen. Marine phytoplankton is not only an important source of oxygen it is a critical food source for ocean life and apparently, for us too.

There are very few (foods) that provide all, or even most, of the raw materials to make new cells and sustain the existing ones. A complete super food, these amazing plants contain more than 90 nutrients vital for a healthy body.

It contains all nine amino acids that the body cannot make. The essential fatty acids are also present (Omega-3 and Omega-6). Further it contains the most important vitamins and mineral nutrients. For example vitamin C, H, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, E, selenium, zinc, chromium, magnesium, calcium, nickel, iron and many more. (General informations about vitamins)

These valuable nutrients are essential for the production of healthy new cells. We all have, at one time or another, cellular or energy blockages, whether they be emotional or physical. And, among the functional ingredients identified from marine algae, natural pigments (NPs) have received particular attention.

Some benefits (but not all) of marine phytoplankton include:

Support Cardiovascular Health: The high level of antioxidants, amino acids, and high levels of omega-3 fatty acids are known to support a healthier cardiovascular system.

Promotes Healthy Skin: There are large amounts of bioflavonoids that can remove toxins from skin cells. Marine phytoplankton also contains riboflavin that reduces free radical attacks in skin cells.

Boost the Immune System: Alanine, beta-carotene, bioflavonoids, and vitamin E are all immune system enhancers found in this superfood.

Increase Energy: Marine phytoplankton detoxifies the body, and eliminates toxins from the cells. This will improve your energy and mood levels.

Stabilizes Blood Sugar Levels: Marine phytoplankton is really good for stabilizing blood sugar levels. Chromium helps to prevent and moderate against diabetes. Glutamic acids help to reduce alcohol and sugar cravings. Phenylalanine is a known sugar craving reducer.

Helps with Joint Health: Manganese helps to assist in joint mobility. Omega-6 fatty acids can relieve symptoms of arthritis. Pathogenic acid can reduce morning pain caused by arthritis. It will help a lot with joint mobility, and reducing pain and stiffness.

Liver Support: The arginine is found in this superfood and is known to help detoxify the liver.

Improves Brain Function: The high amount of omega-3 fatty acids improve brain function. The nucleic acids can enhance the memory. Phenylalanine improves mental clarity. Proline increases learning ability. Magnesium helps reduce mood swings.

More information about phytoplankton




Vitamin A • Vitamin C • Vitamin D • Vitamin E • Vitamin K • Vitamin B6 • Vitamin B12 • Folate • B1 (Thiamin) • B2 (Riboflavin) • B3 (Niacin)


Lutein • Zeaxanthin • Copper • Zinc

Vitamins have specific role to play in the natural wear and tear of the body. There are many vitamin benefits that have a major impact on our overall health.
Vitamins are divided into two types: fat soluble and water soluble. Fat soluble vitamins (vitamin A, D, E and K) are stored in the fat tissues and liver. They can remain in the body up to six months. When the body requires these, they are transported to the area of requirement within the body with help of special carriers. Water soluble vitamins (B-vitamins and vitamin C) are not stored in the body like the fat soluble ones. They travel in the blood stream and need to be replenished everyday.

Below is a list of the 13 major vitamins and what each does for your body:

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin A (Beta-Carotene) is a natural antioxidant. It belongs to a class of pigments known as carotenoids which include the yellow, red and orange pigments that give many vegetables and plants their coloring. Vitamin A has been found to enhance immune system functions by supporting and promoting the activities of white blood cells as well as other immune related cells. It also helps to inhibit free radicals and their damaging effects which have been associated with arthritis, heart disease and the development and progression of malignant cells (cancer). Beta-carotene is a precursor for vitamin A (approximately 6 mg of ß-carotene = 1 mg vitamin A). Beta-carotene is best known for the body’s ability to convert it into retinal, which is essential for good vision and visual health, skin, and immune functions.
Natural sources of beta-carotene include carrots, pumpkin, sweet potato, spinach, kale, collard and turnip greens, and winter squash.

According to the National Institutes on Health, the average adult male should be getting 900mcg of vitamin C each day. Females should be getting 700mg a day. Individuals with special needs (women who are pregnant, smokers) may have different requirements and should consult their health professional.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) is a water-soluble B-vitamin involved with many cellular functions including carbohydrates metabolism, break down of amino acids, production of certain neurotransmitters and multiple enzyme processes (through the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate, or TPP). Thiamin can be found in small amounts in a wide variety of foods. Pork, sunflower seeds, yeast, peas and wheat are a few examples. Very little thiamin is stored within the body and must be consumed on a regular basis. A deficiency may result in weakness, loss of appetite, nerve degeneration and irritability.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin), like most B-vitamins, is involved in many cellular functions. Riboflavin is important in energy metabolism, folate synthesis, conversion of tryptophan to niacin and acts as important coenzymes (FAD/FMN) involved in many reactions. It can be found in liver, mushrooms, spinach, milk, eggs and grains. Because it is water-soluble, there is minimal storage of riboflavin within the body and when dietary intake is insufficient, deficiency can occur (usually accompanied with other vitamin deficiencies).

Prodigy-5 contains:Vitamin B3 (Niacin), also referred to as nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, is another water-soluble, B-vitamin involved with energy metabolism. The coenzymes of niacin (NAD/NADH/NADP/NADPH) are necessary for ATP synthesis (the body’s main energy source), synthesis of fatty acids and some hormones and the transport of hydrogen atoms. When niacin levels are low, the body can use L-tryptophan (an essential amino acid) to manufacture the vitamin. This process is not ideal, however, as it can rapidly deplete L-tryptophan in the body and take away from its other needs such as maintaining optimal levels of serotonin and melatonin. Niacin can be found in grains, liver, fish and chicken.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin which plays a variety of important roles in numerous biological processes. Humans cannot produce vitamin B6 so it must be obtained from the diet. Adequate sources of B6 include meats (salmon, turkey, chicken) and whole grain products, such as spinach, nuts and bananas. There are three forms of vitamin B6: pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxine (PN) and pyridoxamine (PM). Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) is the principal coenzyme form and has the most importance in human metabolism. It acts as a cofactor for many enzymatic reactions involving L-tryptophan, including L-tryptophan’s conversion to serotonin, an important neurotransmitter in the brain. Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate is also involved in other enzymatic reactions where other neurotransmitters, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), are synthesized. This plays a critical role in the functions of the nervous system.
Regarding cardiovascular health, there is an association between low vitamin B6 intake with increased blood homocysteine levels and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, which has been documented in several large observational studies. Vitamin B6, along with folic acid, vitamin B5, vitamin B12 and niacin, is involved in cell metabolism, enhances the immune system, supports the functions of the nervous system, aids in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy and promotes cognitive health. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the conduction of nerve impulses, regulation of steroid hormones, catabolism of glycogen to glucose, heme synthesis, and the synthesis/ metabolism of amino acids and neurotransmitters.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin essential for numerous processes in the body. The richest food sources of vitamin B12 include animal products such as meat, poultry and fish. It is not generally present in plant products with the exeption of peanuts and soybeans which absorb vitamin B12 from bacteria-filled nodules growing on the roots of these plants. Cyanocobalamin is the form most commonly used in supplements but it must be converted into methylcoblamin before it can join the metabolic pool and be properly utilized by the body. Vitamin B12 is also available as methylcobalamin, which is the methylated form, allowing it to become active quicker and be more effective. Vitamin B12 is necessary for countless processes within the body; it transfers methyl groups, plays a part in DNA synthesis and regulation, helps facilitate cell synthesis, maturation and division, helps convert homocysteine to methionine playing a role in cardiovascular protection, aids in the proper functioning of the nervous system, participates in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, helps produce SAMe for mood and cognitive health and also helps produce energy.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble antioxidant essential for human health and life. It has been proven necessary for healthy immune responses, wound healing, non-heme iron absorption (coming from grains and vegetables), reduction in allergic responses, development of connective tissue components such as collagen, and for the prevention of diseases. Vitamin C has also been shown to be important for cardiovascular health, reducing free radicalproduction and free radical damage, and good cognitive health and performance.
Due to human’s inability to produce vitamin C, it is essential to ingest sources containing vitamin C on a regular, if not daily basis. Natural sources of vitamin C include oranges, guavas, peppers (green, red, yellow), kiwis, strawberries, cantaloupes, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, and many other fruits and vegetables.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin essential for normal growth and development, the formation and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth, and influences the absorption and metabolism of phosphorus and calcium. It is necessary for proper muscle functioning, bone mineralization and stability, and multiple immune functions. Primarily the vitamin D used by the body is produced in the skin after exposure to ultraviolet light from sunlight. Lack of exposure to sunlight, reduced ability to synthesize vitamin D in the skin, age, low dietary intake, or impaired intestinal vitamin D absorption can result in deficiency. Deficiency has been associated with rickets (poor bone formation), porous or weak bones (osteopenia, osteoporosis), pain and muscle weakness, increased risk for cardiovascular disease, impaired cognitive health, and the development and progression of malignant cells (cancer).
Natural food sources of vitamin D are few; these foods are eggs from hens that have been fed vitamin D or fatty fish such as herrings, mackerel, sardines and tuna. Due to low vitamin D levels, countries such as the United States and Canada have opted to fortify foods such as milk and other dairy products, margarines and butters, some natural cereal and grain products.
According to the National Institutes on Health, the average adult should be getting 600IU of vitamin D each day. Individuals with special needs (the elderly, women who are pregnant) may have different requirements and should consult their health professional.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin E is one of the most powerful fat-soluble antioxidants in the body. It has been proven to help promote cardiovascular health, enhanced immune system function, aid in skin repair and to protect cell membranes from damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin E contributes to proper blood flow and clotting as well as cognitive health and function.
Natural sources of vitamin E include herbs such as cloves and oregano, whole grains, nuts and seeds, wheat germ, avocado, egg yolks, and vegetables/fruits such as dark leafy greens, peppers (red, yellow, orange, green), tomatoes, and mangos. Other sources are vegetable oils, margarines, and fortified cereals.

Prodigy-5 contains: Folic Acid is water-soluble vitamin important for many aspects of health. Sources of folic acid include dark, green leafy vegetables such as spinach or asparagus, fortified cereals, orange juice and legumes. Folic acid (folate) must go through a series of chemical conversions before it becomes metabolically active to be properly utilized within the body.
Folinic acid is the highly bioavailable, metabolically active derivative of folic acid and does not require the action of the enzyme dihydrofolinate reductase to become active, so it’s not affected by medicines and herbs that inhibit this enzyme. Adequate folate is necessary for proper DNA and RNA synthesis in regards to fetal growth and development. Due to these effects, the U.S. Public Health Service recommends all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 mcg of folic acid daily to prevent neural tube defects.
In addition to its clear effects on fetal growth and development, folic acid also plays an important role in cardiovascular health. By aiding in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine, it has been shown to reduce the levels of homocysteine, a sulfur containing amino acid. In the absence of adequate folic acid levels, homocysteine levels increase and high homocysteine levels are associated with atherosclerosis and the reduced circulation of oxygen and nutrients to the heart, ears and other organs. These results have been documented in countless studies. Folic acid, along with vitamin B6, vitamin B5, vitamin B12 and niacin, is involved in cell metabolism, enhances the immune system, supports the functions of the nervous system, aids in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy and promotes cognitive health.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin K, a generic term for a group of fat soluble vitamins, are involved mostly in the process of blood clotting, but also needed in metabolic pathways of bones and other tissues. The most well known are vitamin K1, also known as phylloquinone, and vitamin K2, known as menaquinone. Vitamin D and vitamin K work together in bone metabolism and development. Vitamin K works against oral anticoagulants such as 4-hidroxikumarin, and excessive vitamin K intake, either through supplementation or a change in diet, can reduce the anticoagulant effect. Vitamin K1 is mainly found in leafy green vegetables (such as spinach, swiss chard and kale), avocado and kiwi fruit; vitamin K2 can be found in meat, eggs, and dairy and is also synthesized by bacteria in the colon.

More information about vitamins




Oxidants are free radicals that either our bodies produce or we get from the environment. Our bodies create oxidants as a response to stress or poor diet, or we are exposed to oxidants through environmental factors like pollution. Oxidative damage is a contributing factor to many diseases, including muscle and tissue degeneration, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and many other health problems.


Free radicals are atoms or groups of atoms with an odd (unpaired) number of electrons. They are like bullies that are low in energy and attack healthy cells and steal their energy to satisfy themselves. Free radicals cause damage to our blood vessels, which can lead to deposits of bad cholesterol and block arteries. Free radicals come in many shapes, sizes, and chemical configurations. What they all share is a voracious appetite for electrons, stealing them from any nearby substances that will yield them.

The human body naturally produces free radicals and the antioxidants to counteract their damaging effects. However, in most cases, free radicals far outnumber the naturally occurring antioxidants. In order to maintain the balance, a continuous supplemental source of external antioxidants are necessary in order to obtain the maximum benefits of antioxidants.


Antioxidants are the nutrients’ police force! They are free radical scavengers! They get rid of the bullies! Antioxidants are like a million microscopic special ops on a mission to save your body from the inside out. The benefits of antioxidants are very important to good health, because if free radicals are left unchallenged, they can cause a wide range of illnesses and chronic diseases.


Obtained through our foods and produced by are bodies, antioxidants are a powerful defense system.
Antioxidants can be found in flavonols (found in chocolate), resveratrol (found in wine), Ellagic acid (found in Raspberries and pomegranate), and lycopene (found in tomatoes). Other popular antioxidants include vitamins A (beta-carotene), C, E, and catechins.


Marine phytoplankton, Raspberries, Pomegranates, Curcuma

Raspberries and pomegranates contain one of the most powerful antioxidants known, Ellagic acid. Ellagic acid is a potent natural antioxidant that can be found in raspberries and pomegranates. Ellagic acid has been shown to be an effective anti- mutagen and anti-carcinogen.

Anthocyanins (red flavonoid pigment found in plants) give pomegranates their red color and offer a strong serving of antioxidants. Punicalagins (a type of phenolic compound) specifically support cardiovascular and neurological health. Studies have shown that antioxidants 18. can play a role in reducing the cell damage of free radicals.


Antioxidants are powerful molecules that support healthy aging in more ways than one. These potent compounds aid in an overall healthy lifestyle by supporting cellular health. Aging isn’t about your chronological age; it is more about the amount of stress in your life and the the function of your cells!

More information about antioxidants


buy prodigy5
buy prodigy5

Becoming a member gives you the advantage of shopping on discounted member prices next time you purchase. Moreover ForeverGreen brings the power of the global economy to every doorstep. By offering unique, effective and high-impact products that fit in an envelope, ForeverGreen allows anyone, anywhere to build a successful global business. Whether you’re interested in a little extra income or building a long-term viable business, you’re in the right place with ForeverGreen.



PRODIGY-5 Single Case
(One case contains 28 serving) prices
$ 75.95
€ 69.11
Prodigy 5 Single DEF small

PRODIGY-5 Double Case 
(One case contains 28 serving) prices
$ 149.95
€ 136.45
Prodigy 5 Double DEF small

You will be redirected to ForeverGreen's official webshop.
Select your country and you'll find Prodigy-5 in the left column, in the strips products group.

ForeverGreen are shipping worldwide.