From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

An antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals, leading to chain reactions that may damage cells. Antioxidants such as thiols or ascorbic acid (vitamin C) terminate these chain reactions. The term "antioxidant" is mainly used for two different groups of substances: industrial chemicals which are added to products to prevent oxidation, and natural chemicals found in foods and body tissue which are said to have beneficial health effects.

To balance the oxidative state, plants and animals maintain complex systems of overlapping antioxidants, such as glutathione and enzymes (e.g., catalase and superoxide dismutase) produced internally or the dietary antioxidants, vitamin Avitamin C and vitamin E.

Diets containing antioxidant dietary supplements do not improve health nor are they effective in preventing diseases. Randomized clinical trials including supplements of beta-carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E singly or in different combinations found no effect on mortality rate[1][2] and cancer risk, or may even increase cancer risk.[3][4]Supplementation with selenium or vitamin E does not reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.[5][6] Oxidative stress can be considered as either a cause or consequence of some diseases, an area of research stimulating drug development for antioxidant compounds for use as potential therapies.

Industrial antioxidants have diverse uses, such as food and cosmetics preservatives and inhibitors of rubber or gasoline deterioration.[7]

Health effects

Relation to diet

Although certain levels of antioxidant vitamins in the diet are required for good health, there is considerable doubt as to whether antioxidant-rich foods or supplements have anti-disease activity; and if they are actually beneficial, it is unknown which antioxidant(s) are needed from the diet and in what amounts beyond typical dietary intake.[8][9][10] Some authors dispute the hypothesis that antioxidant vitamins could prevent chronic diseases,[8][11] while others maintain such a possibility is unproved and misguided from the beginning.[12]

Polyphenols, which often have antioxidant properties in vitro, are not necessarily antioxidants in vivo due to extensive metabolism.[13] In many polyphenols, the catechol group acts as electron acceptor and is therefore responsible for the antioxidant activity.[14] However, this catechol group undergoes extensive metabolism upon uptake in the human body, for example by Catechol-O-methyl transferase, and is therefore no longer able to act as electron acceptor. Many polyphenols may have non-antioxidant roles in minute concentrations that affect cell-to-cell signalingreceptor sensitivity, inflammatory enzyme activity or gene regulation.[15][16][17]

Although dietary antioxidants have been investigated for potential effects on neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's diseaseParkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,[18][19] these studies have been inconclusive.[20][21][22]

Drug candidates

Tirilazad is an antioxidant steroid derivative that inhibits the lipid peroxidation that is believed to play a key role in neuronal death in stroke and head injury. It demonstrated activity in animal models of stroke,[23] but human trials demonstrated no effect on mortality or other outcomes in subarachnoid haemorrhage[24] and worsened results in ischemic stroke.[25]

Similarly, the designed antioxidant NXY-059 exhibited efficacy in animal models, but failed to improve stroke outcomes in a clinical trial.[26] As of November 2014, other antioxidants are being studied as potential neuroprotectants.[27]

Common pharmaceuticals (and supplements) with antioxidant properties may interfere with the efficacy of certain anticancer medication and radiation.[28][29]

Physical exercise

During exercise, oxygen consumption can increase by a factor of more than 10.[30] However, no benefits for physical performance to athletes are seen with vitamin E supplementation[31] and 6 weeks of vitamin E supplementation had no effect on muscle damage in ultramarathon runners.[32] Some research suggests that supplementation with amounts as high as 1000 mg of vitamin C inhibits recovery.[33] Other studies indicated that antioxidant supplementation may attenuate the cardiovascular benefits of exercise.[34]

Adverse effects

Relatively strong reducing acids can have antinutrient effects by binding to dietary minerals such as iron and zinc in the gastrointestinal tract and preventing them from being absorbed.[35] Notable examples are oxalic acidtannins and phytic acid, which are high in plant-based diets.[36]Calcium and iron deficiencies are not uncommon in diets in developing countries where less meat is eaten and there is high consumption of phytic acid from beans and unleavened whole grain bread.[37]
FoodsReducing acid present
Cocoa bean and chocolate, spinachturnip and rhubarb.[38] Oxalic acid
Whole grains, maize, legumes.[39] Phytic acid
Tea, beanscabbage.[38][40] Tannins

Nonpolar antioxidants such as eugenol—a major component of oil of cloves—have toxicity limits that can be exceeded with the misuse of undiluted essential oils.[41] Toxicity associated with high doses of water-soluble antioxidants such as ascorbic acid are less of a concern, as these compounds can be excreted rapidly in urine.[42] More seriously, very high doses of some antioxidants may have harmful long-term effects. The beta-carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) study of lung cancer patients found that smokers given supplements containing beta-carotene and vitamin A had increased rates of lung cancer.[43] Subsequent studies confirmed these adverse effects.[44]

These harmful effects may also be seen in non-smokers, as a recent meta-analysis including data from approximately 230,000 patients showed that β-carotene, vitamin A or vitamin E supplementation is associated with increased mortality but saw no significant effect from vitamin C.[45] No health risk was seen when all the randomized controlled studies were examined together, but an increase in mortality was detected when only high-quality and low-bias risk trials were examined separately.[46] As the majority of these low-bias trials dealt with either elderly people, or people with disease, these results may not apply to the general population.[47] This meta-analysis was later repeated and extended by the same authors, with the new analysis published by the Cochrane Collaboration; confirming the previous results.[46] These two publications are consistent with some previous meta-analyzes that also suggested that Vitamin E supplementation increased mortality,[48] and that antioxidant supplements increased the risk of colon cancer.[49] Beta-carotene may also increase lung cancer.[49][50] Overall, the large number of clinical trials carried out on antioxidant supplements suggest that either these products have no effect on health, or that they cause a small increase in mortality in elderly or vulnerable populations.[8][9][45]

While antioxidant supplementation is widely used in attempts to prevent the development of cancer, antioxidants may interfere with cancer treatments,[51] since the environment of cancer cells causes high levels of oxidative stress, making these cells more susceptible to the further oxidative stress induced by treatments. As a result, by reducing the redox stress in cancer cells, antioxidant supplements (and pharmaceuticals) could decrease the effectiveness of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.[28][52][53] On the other hand, other reviews have suggested that antioxidants could reduce side effects or increase survival times.[54][55]

Oxidative challenge in biology

Further information: Oxidative stress
paradox in metabolism is that, while the vast majority of complex life on Earth requires oxygen for its existence, oxygen is a highly reactive molecule that damages living organisms by producing reactive oxygen species.[56] Consequently, organisms contain a complex network of antioxidant metabolites and enzymes that work together to prevent oxidative damage to cellular components such as DNAproteins and lipids.[57][58] In general, antioxidant systems either prevent these reactive species from being formed, or remove them before they can damage vital components of the cell.[56][57] However, reactive oxygen species also have useful cellular functions, such as redox signaling. Thus, the function of antioxidant systems is not to remove oxidants entirely, but instead to keep them at an optimum level.[59]

The reactive oxygen species produced in cells include hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochlorous acid (HClO), and free radicals such as the hydroxyl radical (·OH) and the superoxide anion (O2−).[60] The hydroxyl radical is particularly unstable and will react rapidly and non-specifically with most biological molecules. This species is produced from hydrogen peroxide in metal-catalyzed redox reactions such as the Fenton reaction.[61] These oxidants can damage cells by starting chemical chain reactions such as lipid peroxidation, or by oxidizing DNA or proteins.[57] Damage to DNA can cause mutations and possibly cancer, if not reversed by DNA repair mechanisms,[62][63] while damage to proteins causes enzyme inhibition, denaturation and protein degradation.[64]

The use of oxygen as part of the process for generating metabolic energy produces reactive oxygen species.[65] In this process, the superoxide anion is produced as a by-productof several steps in the electron transport chain.[66] Particularly important is the reduction of coenzyme Q in complex III, since a highly reactive free radical is formed as an intermediate (Q·−). This unstable intermediate can lead to electron "leakage", when electrons jump directly to oxygen and form the superoxide anion, instead of moving through the normal series of well-controlled reactions of the electron transport chain.[67] Peroxide is also produced from the oxidation of reduced flavoproteins, such as complex I.[68] However, although these enzymes can produce oxidants, the relative importance of the electron transfer chain to other processes that generate peroxide is unclear.[69][70] In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, reactive oxygen species are also produced during photosynthesis,[71] particularly under conditions of high light intensity.[72] This effect is partly offset by the involvement of carotenoids in photoinhibition, and in algae and cyanobacteria, by large amount of iodide and selenium,[73] which involves these antioxidants reacting with over-reduced forms of the photosynthetic reaction centres to prevent the production of reactive oxygen species.[74][75]

Metabolites

Antioxidants are classified into two broad divisions, depending on whether they are soluble in water (hydrophilic) or in lipids (lipophilic). In general, water-soluble antioxidants react with oxidants in the cell cytosol and the blood plasma, while lipid-soluble antioxidants protect cell membranes from lipid peroxidation.[57] These compounds may be synthesized in the body or obtained from the diet.[58] The different antioxidants are present at a wide range of concentrations in body fluids and tissues, with some such as glutathione or ubiquinone mostly present within cells, while others such as uric acid are more evenly distributed (see table below). Some antioxidants are only found in a few organisms and these compounds can be important in pathogens and can be virulence factors.[76]

The relative importance and interactions between these different antioxidants is a very complex question, with the various metabolites and enzyme systems having synergistic and interdependent effects on one another.[77][78] The action of one antioxidant may therefore depend on the proper function of other members of the antioxidant system.[58] The amount of protection provided by any one antioxidant will also depend on its concentration, its reactivity towards the particular reactive oxygen species being considered, and the status of the antioxidants with which it interacts.[58]

Some compounds contribute to antioxidant defense by chelating transition metals and preventing them from catalyzing the production of free radicals in the cell. Particularly important is the ability to sequester iron, which is the function of iron-binding proteins such as transferrin and ferritin.[70] Selenium and zinc are commonly referred to as antioxidant nutrients, but these chemical elements have no antioxidant action themselves and are instead required for the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, as is discussed below.

Antioxidant metaboliteSolubilityConcentration in human serum (μM)[79]Concentration in liver tissue (μmol/kg)
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) Water 50 – 60[80] 260 (human)[81]
Glutathione Water 4[82] 6,400 (human)[81]
Lipoic acid Water 0.1 – 0.7[83] 4 – 5 (rat)[84]
Uric acid Water 200 – 400[85] 1,600 (human)[81]
Carotenes Lipid β-carotene: 0.5 – 1[86]

retinol (vitamin A): 1 – 3[87]

5 (human, total carotenoids)[88]
α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) Lipid 10 – 40[87] 50 (human)[81]
Ubiquinol (coenzyme Q) Lipid 5[89] 200 (human)[90]

Uric acid

Uric acid is by far the highest concentration antioxidant in human blood. Uric acid (UA) is an antioxidant oxypurine produced from xanthine by the enzyme xanthine oxidase, and is an intermediate product of purinemetabolism.[91] In almost all land animals, urate oxidase further catalyzes the oxidation of uric acid to allantoin,[92] but in humans and most higher primates, the urate oxidase gene is nonfunctional, so that UA is not further broken down.[92][93] The evolutionary reasons for this loss of urate conversion to allantoin remain the topic of active speculation.[94][95] The antioxidant effects of uric acid have led researchers to suggest this mutation was beneficial to early primates and humans.[95][96] Studies of high altitude acclimatization support the hypothesis that urate acts as an antioxidant by mitigating the oxidative stress caused by high-altitude hypoxia.[97] In animal studies that investigate diseases facilitated by oxidative stress, introduction of UA both prevents the disease or reduces it, leading researchers to propose this is due to UA's antioxidant properties.[98] Studies of UA's antioxidant mechanism support this proposal.[99]

With respect to multiple sclerosis, Gwen Scott explains the significance of uric acid as an antioxidant by proposing that "Serum UA levels are inversely associated with the incidence of MS in humans because MS patients have low serum UA levels and individuals with hyperuricemia (gout) rarely develop the disease. Moreover, the administration of UA is therapeutic in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS."[98][100][101] In sum, while the mechanism of UA as an antioxidant is well-supported, the claim that its levels affect MS risk is still controversial,[102][103] and requires more research.

Likewise, UA has the highest concentration of any blood antioxidant[85] and provides over half of the total antioxidant capacity of human serum.[104] Uric acid's antioxidant activities are also complex, given that it does not react with some oxidants, such as superoxide, but does act against peroxynitrite,[105] peroxides, and hypochlorous acid.[91] Concerns over elevated UA's contribution to gout must be considered as one of many risk factors.[106] By itself, UA-related risk of gout at high levels (415–530 μmol/L) is only 0.5% per year with an increase to 4.5% per year at UA supersaturation levels (535+ μmol/L).[107] Many of these aforementioned studies determined UA's antioxidant actions within normal physiological levels,[97][105] and some found antioxidant activity at levels as high as 285 μmol/L.[108]

Vitamin C

Ascorbic acid or "vitamin C" is a monosaccharide oxidation-reduction (redoxcatalyst found in both animals and plants. As one of the enzymes needed to make ascorbic acid has been lost by mutation during primateevolution, humans must obtain it from the diet; it is therefore a vitamin.[109] Most other animals are able to produce this compound in their bodies and do not require it in their diets.[110] Ascorbic acid is required for the conversion of the procollagen to collagen by oxidizing proline residues to hydroxyproline. In other cells, it is maintained in its reduced form by reaction with glutathione, which can be catalysed by protein disulfide isomerase and glutaredoxins.[111][112] Ascorbic acid is a redox catalyst which can reduce, and thereby neutralize, reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide.[113] In addition to its direct antioxidant effects, ascorbic acid is also a substrate for the redox enzyme ascorbate peroxidase, a function that is particularly important in stress resistance in plants.[114] Ascorbic acid is present at high levels in all parts of plants and can reach concentrations of 20 millimolar in chloroplasts.[115]

Glutathione

Glutathione is a cysteine-containing peptide found in most forms of aerobic life.[116] It is not required in the diet and is instead synthesized in cells from its constituent amino acids.[117] Glutathione has antioxidant properties since the thiol group in its cysteine moiety is a reducing agent and can be reversibly oxidized and reduced. In cells, glutathione is maintained in the reduced form by the enzyme glutathione reductase and in turn reduces other metabolites and enzyme systems, such as ascorbate in the glutathione-ascorbate cycleglutathione peroxidases and glutaredoxins, as well as reacting directly with oxidants.[111] Due to its high concentration and its central role in maintaining the cell's redox state, glutathione is one of the most important cellular antioxidants.[116] In some organisms glutathione is replaced by other thiols, such as by mycothiol in the Actinomycetesbacillithiol in some Gram-positive bacteria,[118][119] or by trypanothione in the Kinetoplastids.[120][121]

Melatonin

Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant.[122] Melatonin easily crosses cell membranes and the blood–brain barrier.[123] Unlike other antioxidants, melatonin does not undergo redox cycling, which is the ability of a molecule to undergo repeated reduction and oxidation. Redox cycling may allow other antioxidants (such as vitamin C) to act as pro-oxidants and promote free radical formation. Melatonin, once oxidized, cannot be reduced to its former state because it forms several stable end-products upon reacting with free radicals. Therefore, it has been referred to as a terminal (or suicidal) antioxidant.[124]

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is the collective name for a set of eight related tocopherols and tocotrienols, which are fat-soluble vitamins with antioxidant properties.[125][126] Of these, α-tocopherol has been most studied as it has the highest bioavailability, with the body preferentially absorbing and metabolising this form.[127]

It has been claimed that the α-tocopherol form is the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, and that it protects membranes from oxidation by reacting with lipid radicals produced in the lipid peroxidation chain reaction.[125][128] This removes the free radical intermediates and prevents the propagation reaction from continuing. This reaction produces oxidised α-tocopheroxyl radicals that can be recycled back to the active reduced form through reduction by other antioxidants, such as ascorbate, retinol or ubiquinol.[129] This is in line with findings showing that α-tocopherol, but not water-soluble antioxidants, efficiently protects glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4)-deficient cells from cell death.[130] GPx4 is the only known enzyme that efficiently reduces lipid-hydroperoxides within biological membranes.

However, the roles and importance of the various forms of vitamin E are presently unclear,[131][132] and it has even been suggested that the most important function of α-tocopherol is as a signaling molecule, with this molecule having no significant role in antioxidant metabolism.[133][134] The functions of the other forms of vitamin E are even less well-understood, although γ-tocopherol is a nucleophile that may react with electrophilicmutagens,[127] and tocotrienols may be important in protecting neurons from damage.[135]

Pro-oxidant activities

Further information: Pro-oxidant

Antioxidants that are reducing agents can also act as pro-oxidants. For example, vitamin C has antioxidant activity when it reduces oxidizing substances such as hydrogen peroxide,[136] however, it will also reduce metal ions that generate free radicals through the Fenton reaction.[61][137]

2 Fe3+ + Ascorbate → 2 Fe2+ + Dehydroascorbate
2 Fe2+ + 2 H2O2 → 2 Fe3+ + 2 OH· + 2 OH−

The relative importance of the antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of antioxidants is an area of current research, but vitamin C, which exerts its effects as a vitamin by oxidizing polypeptides, appears to have a mostly antioxidant action in the human body.[137][138] However, less data is available for other dietary antioxidants, such as vitamin E,[139] or the polyphenols.[140][141] Likewise, the pathogenesis of diseases involving hyperuricemia likely involve uric acid's direct and indirect pro-oxidant properties.

That is, paradoxically, agents which are normally considered antioxidants can act as conditional pro-oxidants and actually increase oxidative stress. Besides ascorbate, medically important conditional pro-oxidants include uric acid and sulfhydryl amino acids such as homocysteine. Typically, this involves some transition-series metal such as copper or iron as catalyst. The potential role of the pro-oxidant role of uric acid in (e.g.) atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke is considered above. Another example is the postulated role of homocysteine in atherosclerosis.

Negative health effects

Some antioxidant supplements may promote disease and increase mortality in humans under certain conditions.[45][141] Hypothetically, free radicals induce an endogenous response that protects against exogenous radicals (and possibly other toxic compounds).[142] Free radicals may increase life span.[141] This increase may be prevented by antioxidants, providing direct evidence that toxic radicals may mitohormetically exert life extending and health promoting effects.[45][141]

Enzyme systems

As with the chemical antioxidants, cells are protected against oxidative stress by an interacting network of antioxidant enzymes.[56][57] Here, the superoxide released by processes such as oxidative phosphorylation is first converted to hydrogen peroxide and then further reduced to give water. This detoxification pathway is the result of multiple enzymes, with superoxide dismutases catalysing the first step and then catalases and various peroxidases removing hydrogen peroxide. As with antioxidant metabolites, the contributions of these enzymes to antioxidant defenses can be hard to separate from one another, but the generation of transgenic mice lacking just one antioxidant enzyme can be informative.[143]

Superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxiredoxins

Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are a class of closely related enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of the superoxide anion into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.[144][145] SOD enzymes are present in almost all aerobic cells and in extracellular fluids.[146] Superoxide dismutase enzymes contain metal ion cofactors that, depending on the isozyme, can be copper, zinc, manganese or iron. In humans, the copper/zinc SOD is present in the cytosol, while manganese SOD is present in the mitochondrion.[145] There also exists a third form of SOD in extracellular fluids, which contains copper and zinc in its active sites.[147] The mitochondrial isozyme seems to be the most biologically important of these three, since mice lacking this enzyme die soon after birth.[148] In contrast, the mice lacking copper/zinc SOD (Sod1) are viable but have numerous pathologies and a reduced lifespan (see article on superoxide), while mice without the extracellular SOD have minimal defects (sensitive to hyperoxia).[143][149] In plants, SOD isozymes are present in the cytosol and mitochondria, with an iron SOD found in chloroplasts that is absent from vertebrates and yeast.[150]

Catalases are enzymes that catalyse the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, using either an iron or manganese cofactor.[151][152] This protein is localized to peroxisomes in most eukaryotic cells.[153]Catalase is an unusual enzyme since, although hydrogen peroxide is its only substrate, it follows a ping-pong mechanism. Here, its cofactor is oxidised by one molecule of hydrogen peroxide and then regenerated by transferring the bound oxygen to a second molecule of substrate.[154] Despite its apparent importance in hydrogen peroxide removal, humans with genetic deficiency of catalase — "acatalasemia" — or mice genetically engineered to lack catalase completely, suffer few ill effects.[155][156]

Peroxiredoxins are peroxidases that catalyze the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, organic hydroperoxides, as well as peroxynitrite.[158] They are divided into three classes: typical 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins; atypical 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins; and 1-cysteine peroxiredoxins.[159] These enzymes share the same basic catalytic mechanism, in which a redox-active cysteine (the peroxidatic cysteine) in the active site is oxidized to a sulfenic acid by the peroxide substrate.[160] Over-oxidation of this cysteine residue in peroxiredoxins inactivates these enzymes, but this can be reversed by the action of sulfiredoxin.[161] Peroxiredoxins seem to be important in antioxidant metabolism, as mice lacking peroxiredoxin 1 or 2 have shortened lifespan and suffer from hemolytic anaemia, while plants use peroxiredoxins to remove hydrogen peroxide generated in chloroplasts.[162][163][164]

Thioredoxin and glutathione systems

The thioredoxin system contains the 12-kDa protein thioredoxin and its companion thioredoxin reductase.[165] Proteins related to thioredoxin are present in all sequenced organisms. Plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, have a particularly great diversity of isoforms.[166] The active site of thioredoxin consists of two neighboring cysteines, as part of a highly conserved CXXC motif, that can cycle between an active dithiol form (reduced) and an oxidized disulfide form. In its active state, thioredoxin acts as an efficient reducing agent, scavenging reactive oxygen species and maintaining other proteins in their reduced state.[167] After being oxidized, the active thioredoxin is regenerated by the action of thioredoxin reductase, using NADPH as an electron donor.[168]

The glutathione system includes glutathione, glutathione reductaseglutathione peroxidases and glutathione S-transferases.[116] This system is found in animals, plants and microorganisms.[116][169] Glutathione peroxidase is an enzyme containing four selenium-cofactors that catalyzes the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides. There are at least four different glutathione peroxidase isozymes in animals.[170] Glutathione peroxidase 1 is the most abundant and is a very efficient scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, while glutathione peroxidase 4 is most active with lipid hydroperoxides. Surprisingly, glutathione peroxidase 1 is dispensable, as mice lacking this enzyme have normal lifespans,[171] but they are hypersensitive to induced oxidative stress.[172] In addition, the glutathione S-transferases show high activity with lipid peroxides.[173] These enzymes are at particularly high levels in the liver and also serve in detoxification metabolism.[174]

Oxidative stress in disease

Further information: PathologyFree-radical theory, and Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress is thought to contribute to the development of a wide range of diseases including Alzheimer's disease,[175][176] Parkinson's disease,[177] the pathologies caused by diabetes,[178][179] rheumatoid arthritis,[180] and neurodegeneration in motor neuron diseases.[181] In many of these cases, it is unclear if oxidants trigger the disease, or if they are produced as a secondary consequence of the disease and from general tissue damage;[60] One case in which this link is particularly well-understood is the role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease. Here, low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation appears to trigger the process of atherogenesis, which results in atherosclerosis, and finally cardiovascular disease.[182][183]

Oxidative damage in DNA can cause cancer. Several antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase etc. protect DNA from oxidative stress. It has been proposed that polymorphisms in these enzymes are associated with DNA damage and subsequently the individual's risk of cancer susceptibility.[184]

low calorie diet extends median and maximum lifespan in many animals. This effect may involve a reduction in oxidative stress.[185] While there is some evidence to support the role of oxidative stress in aging in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans,[186][187] the evidence in mammals is less clear.[188][189][190] Indeed, a 2009 review of experiments in mice concluded that almost all manipulations of antioxidant systems had no effect on aging.[191]

Diets high in fruit and vegetables, and so possibly being rich in antioxidant vitamins, have no established effect on status of health or aging,[192][193] yet may have more subtle physiological effects, such as modifying cell-to-cell communication.[16][133]

Uses in technology

Food preservatives

Antioxidants are used as food additives to help guard against food deterioration. Exposure to oxygen and sunlight are the two main factors in the oxidation of food, so food is preserved by keeping in the dark and sealing it in containers or even coating it in wax, as with cucumbers. However, as oxygen is also important for plant respiration, storing plant materials in anaerobic conditions produces unpleasant flavors and unappealing colors.[194] Consequently, packaging of fresh fruits and vegetables contains an ~8% oxygen atmosphere. Antioxidants are an especially important class of preservatives as, unlike bacterial or fungalspoilage, oxidation reactions still occur relatively rapidly in frozen or refrigerated food.[195] These preservatives include natural antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA, E300) and tocopherols (E306), as well as synthetic antioxidants such as propyl gallate (PG, E310), tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, E320) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, E321).[196][197]

The most common molecules attacked by oxidation are unsaturated fats; oxidation causes them to turn rancid.[198] Since oxidized lipids are often discolored and usually have unpleasant tastes such as metallic or sulfurous flavors, it is important to avoid oxidation in fat-rich foods. Thus, these foods are rarely preserved by drying; instead, they are preserved by smokingsalting or fermenting. Even less fatty foods such as fruits are sprayed with sulfurous antioxidants prior to air drying. Oxidation is often catalyzed by metals, which is why fats such as butter should never be wrapped in aluminium foil or kept in metal containers. Some fatty foods such as olive oil are partially protected from oxidation by their natural content of antioxidants, but remain sensitive to photooxidation.[199] Antioxidant preservatives are also added to fat based cosmetics such as lipstick and moisturizers to prevent rancidity.

Industrial uses

Antioxidants are frequently added to industrial products. A common use is as stabilizers in fuels and lubricants to prevent oxidation, and in gasolines to prevent the polymerization that leads to the formation of engine-fouling residues.[200] In 2007, the worldwide market for industrial antioxidants had a total volume of around 0.88 million tons. This created a revenue of circa 3.7 billion US-dollars (2.4 billion Euros).[201]

They are widely used to prevent the oxidative degradation of polymers such as rubbers, plastics and adhesives that causes a loss of strength and flexibility in these materials.[202] Polymers containing double bonds in their main chains, such as natural rubber and polybutadiene, are especially susceptible to oxidation and ozonolysis. They can be protected by antiozonants. Solid polymer products start to crack on exposed surfaces as the material degrades and the chains break. The mode of cracking varies between oxygen and ozone attack, the former causing a "crazy paving" effect, while ozone attack produces deeper cracks aligned at right angles to the tensile strain in the product. Oxidation and UV degradation are also frequently linked, mainly because UV radiation creates free radicals by bond breakage. The free radicals then react with oxygen to produce peroxy radicals which cause yet further damage, often in a chain reaction. Other polymers susceptible to oxidation include polypropylene and polyethylene. The former is more sensitive owing to the presence of secondary carbon atoms present in every repeat unit. Attack occurs at this point because the free radical formed is more stable than one formed on a primary carbon atom. Oxidation of polyethylene tends to occur at weak links in the chain, such as branch points in low-density polyethylene.

Fuel additiveComponents[203]Applications[203]
AO-22 N,N'-di-2-butyl-1,4-phenylenediamine Turbine oils, transformer oilshydraulic fluidswaxes, and greases
AO-24 N,N'-di-2-butyl-1,4-phenylenediamine Low-temperature oils
AO-29 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol Turbine oils, transformer oils, hydraulic fluids, waxes, greases, and gasolines
AO-30 2,4-dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol Jet fuels and gasolines, including aviation gasolines
AO-31 2,4-dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol Jet fuels and gasolines, including aviation gasolines
AO-32 2,4-dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol Jet fuels and gasolines, including aviation gasolines
AO-37 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol Jet fuels and gasolines, widely approved for aviation fuels

Measurement and levels in food

 

Antioxidant vitamins are found in vegetables, fruits, eggs, legumes and nuts. Vitamins A, C, and E can be destroyed by long-term storage or prolonged cooking.[204] The effects of cooking and food processing are complex, as these processes can also increase the bioavailability of antioxidants, such as some carotenoids in vegetables.[205] Processed food contains fewer antioxidant vitamins than fresh and uncooked foods, as preparation exposes food to heat and oxygen.[206]

Antioxidant vitaminsFoods containing high levels of antioxidant vitamins[40][207][208]
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Fresh or frozen fruits and vegetables
Vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols) Vegetable oilsnuts and seeds
Carotenoids (carotenes as provitamin A) Fruit, vegetables and eggs

Other antioxidants are not vitamins and are instead made in the body. For example, ubiquinol (coenzyme Q) is poorly absorbed from the gut and is made in humans through the mevalonate pathway.[90] Another example is glutathione, which is made from amino acids. As any glutathione in the gut is broken down to free cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid before being absorbed, even large oral doses have little effect on the concentration of glutathione in the body.[209][210] Although large amounts of sulfur-containing amino acids such as acetylcysteine can increase glutathione,[211] no evidence exists that eating high levels of these glutathione precursors is beneficial for healthy adults.[212] Supplying more of these precursors may be useful as part of the treatment of some diseases, such as acute respiratory distress syndromeprotein-energy malnutrition, or preventing the liver damage produced by paracetamol overdose.[211][213]

Other compounds in the diet can alter the levels of antioxidants by acting as pro-oxidants whereby consuming the compound may cause oxidative stress, possibly resulting in higher levels of antioxidant enzymes.[12]

Invalidation of ORAC

Measurement of antioxidant content in food is not a straightforward process, as this is a diverse group of compounds with different reactivities to various reactive oxygen species. In food science, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) used to be the industry standard for antioxidant strength of whole foods, juices and food additives.[214][215] However, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) withdrew these ratings in 2012 as biologically invalid, stating that no physiological proof in vivo existed to support the free-radical theory, especially for polyphenols.[216] Consequently, the ORAC method, derived only from in vitroexperiments, is no longer considered relevant to human diets or biology.

Alternative in vitro measurements include the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay.[217]

History

As part of their adaptation from marine life, terrestrial plants began producing non-marine antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C), polyphenols and tocopherols. The evolution of angiosperm plants between 50 and 200 million years ago resulted in the development of many antioxidant pigments – particularly during the Jurassic period – as chemical defences against reactive oxygen species that are byproducts of photosynthesis.[218] Originally, the term antioxidant specifically referred to a chemical that prevented the consumption of oxygen. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, extensive study concentrated on the use of antioxidants in important industrial processes, such as the prevention of metal corrosion, the vulcanization of rubber, and the polymerization of fuels in the fouling of internal combustion engines.[219]

Early research on the role of antioxidants in biology focused on their use in preventing the oxidation of unsaturated fats, which is the cause of rancidity.[220] Antioxidant activity could be measured simply by placing the fat in a closed container with oxygen and measuring the rate of oxygen consumption. However, it was the identification of vitamins AC, and E as antioxidants that revolutionized the field and led to the realization of the importance of antioxidants in the biochemistry of living organisms.[221][222] The possible mechanisms of action of antioxidants were first explored when it was recognized that a substance with anti-oxidative activity is likely to be one that is itself readily oxidized.[223] Research into how vitamin E prevents the process of lipid peroxidation led to the identification of antioxidants as reducing agents that prevent oxidative reactions, often by scavenging reactive oxygen species before they can damage cells.[224]

See also

References

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PRODIGY-5

ALL IN ONE NUTRITIONAL WITH TRANS-ARMOR® NUTRIENT TECHNOLOGY

BREAKTHROUGH TECHNOLOGY IN PRODIGY 5.

THE FIVE UNIQUE ATTRIBUTES

A revolutionary new product featuring five unique attributes that create an all-in-one nutritional experience for everyone, every day. Take advantage of the technology and know-how, and enjoy the benefits of the phytoplankton, antioxidants, vitamins, and energy you can feel in minutes with the new ForeverGreen product: Prodigy-5.

Vitamins in Prodigy-5

We all know that vitamins and minerals are essential to our overall health, yet many of us are left not getting most of the vitamins and minerals we need through our normal eating habits. Prodigy-5 features a unique blend of vitamins and minerals that were each specifically chosen using the best peer reviewed scientific research available to support your general and eye health.  

Technology & Know-how behind Prodigy-5

​Adam Saucedo, M.D., has teamed up with the brilliant mind of Balamurali Ambati, M.D., PhD, MBA to bring you the exclusive TransArmor™ Nutrient Technology, found only in Prodigy-5. The patent-pending TransArmor™ technology increases the transit time of nutrients through the digestive system and primes the body for increased absorption of these nutrients.

Antioxidants in Prodigy-5

Prodigy-5 features natural pomegranate and raspberry for a bold flavor that also delivers powerful antioxidants! Antioxidants help to rid the body of damaging free radicals. Antioxidants become a powerful defense system to these free radicals, which if left unchallenged, can contribute to the cause of a range of health problems. Raspberries and pomegranates, Marine phytoplankton, Curcuma.

Phytoplankton in Prodigy-5

The most fundamental nutrient on the planet, phytoplankton are microscopic plant-based organisms that generate most of the world’s oxygen. Phytoplankton, found naturally in both salt and fresh water, are a viable source of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and other micronutrients.

Energy of the Prodigy-5

Prodigy-5 features natural green tea extract, which is known to help increase energy and mental focus. It helps provide the alertness associated with caffeine without the jittery side effects! Green tea has a range of health benefits, and also contains powerful antioxidants, making it the perfect way to get a little extra boost with your daily dose of Prodigy-5.

PRODIGY-5 DEVELOPED BY MEDICAL INDUSTRY LEADERS

Prodigy-5 revolutionaly Trans-Armor™ nutrient technology, developed by medical industry leader doctors aids the body in absorbing more of the nutrition than it normally would, thereby increasing efficiencies and overall health.

In addition to this scientifically proven technology, Prodigy-5 is considered an all-in-one nutritional habit.

Dr. Ambati, child prodigy, and ForeverGreen’s own Research Scientist Adam Saucedo have partnered together and developed what is being called the check-mate in the conversation of nutrition, Prodigy-5.

DR. AMBATI

CHILD PRODIGY

Dr. Ambati started calculus at age 4, graduated high school at age 11, pre-med age 13, med-school at 14 and was announced the Guinness Book of World Records holder for youngest doctor at age 17.

DR. ADAM SAUCEDO

RESEARCH SCIENTIST

Dr. Adam Saucedo is ForeverGreen’s own Research Scientist, founder and Chief Medical Adviser of the Center for the Heart and Founder of the New Life Center; the largest eating disorder clinic in the world.

DID YOU KNOW THAT HUMAN STOMACH ACIDS ARE STRONG ENOUGH TO DISSOLVE A RAZOR BLADE?

This means that your stomach acids act like a wall, preventing supplements and nutrients from passing to your blood stream and cells; only a percentage survives. Plain English? Your body gets only a fraction of the nutrients it digests. So, this begs the question, Can it be changed?

Can we use modern science to get more out of the digestive process? The answer is a very exciting yes!

Prodigy-5 with the perfect micro-nutrient formula featuring “Trans-Armor Nutrient Technology” that can quickly deliver the nutrients you need throughout your entire body and has the ability to increase the absorption and utilization of those nutrients to maximize your results. With this ground-breaking technology and formula, Prodigy-5 is the solution to the global problem of malnutrition.

With today’s nutritionally bankrupt foods, and the bodies inability to absorb 100% of even the healthiest whole foods, malnutrition effects every singe one of us. Whether you are healthy, wealthy, poor or starving, every person on this planet needs the nutritional revolution offered in Prodigy-5. It is literally for EVERYONE, EVERY DAY.

Prodigy-5 delivers a new TransArmor™ Nutrition bio-enhancing technology.
See how it works:

Prodigy-5 revolutionaly Trans-Armor™ nutrient technology, developed by medical industry leader doctors aids the body in absorbing more of the nutrition than it normally would, thereby increasing efficiencies and overall health. In addition to this scientifically proven technology, Prodigy-5 is considered an all-in-one nutritional habit.

Prodigy 5 contains the new "Trans-Armor™" delivery technology that provides nutrition and energy at the highest level of absorption to our body's cells, including:

• a micronutrient formula for general health,
• a micronutrient formula for eye health,
• an impressive antioxidant profile,
• an impressive and new bio-enhancing absorption technology


Does not contain artificial sweetners or additives. Sweetened with Pomegranate, Raspberry, and Stevia.

PRODIGY-5 HIGHLIGHT

PHYTOPLANKTON

One of those rare products that contains almost everything you need for life (and the rebuilding of cells) is marine phytoplankton.

Marine phytoplankton are one-cell plants that are too small to be seen individually without the aid of a microscope. Because they are microscopic, the body’s cells can absorb them immediately (bioavailability) and receive all of their valuable nutrients at the same time for maximum effectiveness.

The marine phytoplankton, also known as a “Superfood”, is according to NASA and plenty of scientific researches the most important plant and food in the world as it provides the earth with over 90% of it’s oxygen. Marine phytoplankton is not only an important source of oxygen it is a critical food source for ocean life and apparently, for us too.

There are very few (foods) that provide all, or even most, of the raw materials to make new cells and sustain the existing ones. A complete super food, these amazing plants contain more than 90 nutrients vital for a healthy body.

It contains all nine amino acids that the body cannot make. The essential fatty acids are also present (Omega-3 and Omega-6). Further it contains the most important vitamins and mineral nutrients. For example vitamin C, H, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, E, selenium, zinc, chromium, magnesium, calcium, nickel, iron and many more. (General informations about vitamins)

These valuable nutrients are essential for the production of healthy new cells. We all have, at one time or another, cellular or energy blockages, whether they be emotional or physical. And, among the functional ingredients identified from marine algae, natural pigments (NPs) have received particular attention.

Some benefits (but not all) of marine phytoplankton include:

Support Cardiovascular Health: The high level of antioxidants, amino acids, and high levels of omega-3 fatty acids are known to support a healthier cardiovascular system.

Promotes Healthy Skin: There are large amounts of bioflavonoids that can remove toxins from skin cells. Marine phytoplankton also contains riboflavin that reduces free radical attacks in skin cells.

Boost the Immune System: Alanine, beta-carotene, bioflavonoids, and vitamin E are all immune system enhancers found in this superfood.

Increase Energy: Marine phytoplankton detoxifies the body, and eliminates toxins from the cells. This will improve your energy and mood levels.

Stabilizes Blood Sugar Levels: Marine phytoplankton is really good for stabilizing blood sugar levels. Chromium helps to prevent and moderate against diabetes. Glutamic acids help to reduce alcohol and sugar cravings. Phenylalanine is a known sugar craving reducer.

Helps with Joint Health: Manganese helps to assist in joint mobility. Omega-6 fatty acids can relieve symptoms of arthritis. Pathogenic acid can reduce morning pain caused by arthritis. It will help a lot with joint mobility, and reducing pain and stiffness.

Liver Support: The arginine is found in this superfood and is known to help detoxify the liver.

Improves Brain Function: The high amount of omega-3 fatty acids improve brain function. The nucleic acids can enhance the memory. Phenylalanine improves mental clarity. Proline increases learning ability. Magnesium helps reduce mood swings.

More information about phytoplankton

PRODIGY-5 HIGHLIGHT

VITAMINS AND MINERALS

MICRONUTRIENT FORMULA FOR GENERAL HEALTH

Vitamin A • Vitamin C • Vitamin D • Vitamin E • Vitamin K • Vitamin B6 • Vitamin B12 • Folate • B1 (Thiamin) • B2 (Riboflavin) • B3 (Niacin)



MICRONUTRIENT FORMULA FOR EYE HEALTH

Lutein • Zeaxanthin • Copper • Zinc

Vitamins have specific role to play in the natural wear and tear of the body. There are many vitamin benefits that have a major impact on our overall health.
Vitamins are divided into two types: fat soluble and water soluble. Fat soluble vitamins (vitamin A, D, E and K) are stored in the fat tissues and liver. They can remain in the body up to six months. When the body requires these, they are transported to the area of requirement within the body with help of special carriers. Water soluble vitamins (B-vitamins and vitamin C) are not stored in the body like the fat soluble ones. They travel in the blood stream and need to be replenished everyday.


Below is a list of the 13 major vitamins and what each does for your body:

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin A (Beta-Carotene) is a natural antioxidant. It belongs to a class of pigments known as carotenoids which include the yellow, red and orange pigments that give many vegetables and plants their coloring. Vitamin A has been found to enhance immune system functions by supporting and promoting the activities of white blood cells as well as other immune related cells. It also helps to inhibit free radicals and their damaging effects which have been associated with arthritis, heart disease and the development and progression of malignant cells (cancer). Beta-carotene is a precursor for vitamin A (approximately 6 mg of ß-carotene = 1 mg vitamin A). Beta-carotene is best known for the body’s ability to convert it into retinal, which is essential for good vision and visual health, skin, and immune functions.
Natural sources of beta-carotene include carrots, pumpkin, sweet potato, spinach, kale, collard and turnip greens, and winter squash.

According to the National Institutes on Health, the average adult male should be getting 900mcg of vitamin C each day. Females should be getting 700mg a day. Individuals with special needs (women who are pregnant, smokers) may have different requirements and should consult their health professional.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) is a water-soluble B-vitamin involved with many cellular functions including carbohydrates metabolism, break down of amino acids, production of certain neurotransmitters and multiple enzyme processes (through the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate, or TPP). Thiamin can be found in small amounts in a wide variety of foods. Pork, sunflower seeds, yeast, peas and wheat are a few examples. Very little thiamin is stored within the body and must be consumed on a regular basis. A deficiency may result in weakness, loss of appetite, nerve degeneration and irritability.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin), like most B-vitamins, is involved in many cellular functions. Riboflavin is important in energy metabolism, folate synthesis, conversion of tryptophan to niacin and acts as important coenzymes (FAD/FMN) involved in many reactions. It can be found in liver, mushrooms, spinach, milk, eggs and grains. Because it is water-soluble, there is minimal storage of riboflavin within the body and when dietary intake is insufficient, deficiency can occur (usually accompanied with other vitamin deficiencies).

Prodigy-5 contains:Vitamin B3 (Niacin), also referred to as nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, is another water-soluble, B-vitamin involved with energy metabolism. The coenzymes of niacin (NAD/NADH/NADP/NADPH) are necessary for ATP synthesis (the body’s main energy source), synthesis of fatty acids and some hormones and the transport of hydrogen atoms. When niacin levels are low, the body can use L-tryptophan (an essential amino acid) to manufacture the vitamin. This process is not ideal, however, as it can rapidly deplete L-tryptophan in the body and take away from its other needs such as maintaining optimal levels of serotonin and melatonin. Niacin can be found in grains, liver, fish and chicken.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin which plays a variety of important roles in numerous biological processes. Humans cannot produce vitamin B6 so it must be obtained from the diet. Adequate sources of B6 include meats (salmon, turkey, chicken) and whole grain products, such as spinach, nuts and bananas. There are three forms of vitamin B6: pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxine (PN) and pyridoxamine (PM). Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) is the principal coenzyme form and has the most importance in human metabolism. It acts as a cofactor for many enzymatic reactions involving L-tryptophan, including L-tryptophan’s conversion to serotonin, an important neurotransmitter in the brain. Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate is also involved in other enzymatic reactions where other neurotransmitters, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), are synthesized. This plays a critical role in the functions of the nervous system.
Regarding cardiovascular health, there is an association between low vitamin B6 intake with increased blood homocysteine levels and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, which has been documented in several large observational studies. Vitamin B6, along with folic acid, vitamin B5, vitamin B12 and niacin, is involved in cell metabolism, enhances the immune system, supports the functions of the nervous system, aids in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy and promotes cognitive health. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the conduction of nerve impulses, regulation of steroid hormones, catabolism of glycogen to glucose, heme synthesis, and the synthesis/ metabolism of amino acids and neurotransmitters.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin essential for numerous processes in the body. The richest food sources of vitamin B12 include animal products such as meat, poultry and fish. It is not generally present in plant products with the exeption of peanuts and soybeans which absorb vitamin B12 from bacteria-filled nodules growing on the roots of these plants. Cyanocobalamin is the form most commonly used in supplements but it must be converted into methylcoblamin before it can join the metabolic pool and be properly utilized by the body. Vitamin B12 is also available as methylcobalamin, which is the methylated form, allowing it to become active quicker and be more effective. Vitamin B12 is necessary for countless processes within the body; it transfers methyl groups, plays a part in DNA synthesis and regulation, helps facilitate cell synthesis, maturation and division, helps convert homocysteine to methionine playing a role in cardiovascular protection, aids in the proper functioning of the nervous system, participates in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, helps produce SAMe for mood and cognitive health and also helps produce energy.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble antioxidant essential for human health and life. It has been proven necessary for healthy immune responses, wound healing, non-heme iron absorption (coming from grains and vegetables), reduction in allergic responses, development of connective tissue components such as collagen, and for the prevention of diseases. Vitamin C has also been shown to be important for cardiovascular health, reducing free radicalproduction and free radical damage, and good cognitive health and performance.
Due to human’s inability to produce vitamin C, it is essential to ingest sources containing vitamin C on a regular, if not daily basis. Natural sources of vitamin C include oranges, guavas, peppers (green, red, yellow), kiwis, strawberries, cantaloupes, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, and many other fruits and vegetables.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin essential for normal growth and development, the formation and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth, and influences the absorption and metabolism of phosphorus and calcium. It is necessary for proper muscle functioning, bone mineralization and stability, and multiple immune functions. Primarily the vitamin D used by the body is produced in the skin after exposure to ultraviolet light from sunlight. Lack of exposure to sunlight, reduced ability to synthesize vitamin D in the skin, age, low dietary intake, or impaired intestinal vitamin D absorption can result in deficiency. Deficiency has been associated with rickets (poor bone formation), porous or weak bones (osteopenia, osteoporosis), pain and muscle weakness, increased risk for cardiovascular disease, impaired cognitive health, and the development and progression of malignant cells (cancer).
Natural food sources of vitamin D are few; these foods are eggs from hens that have been fed vitamin D or fatty fish such as herrings, mackerel, sardines and tuna. Due to low vitamin D levels, countries such as the United States and Canada have opted to fortify foods such as milk and other dairy products, margarines and butters, some natural cereal and grain products.
According to the National Institutes on Health, the average adult should be getting 600IU of vitamin D each day. Individuals with special needs (the elderly, women who are pregnant) may have different requirements and should consult their health professional.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin E is one of the most powerful fat-soluble antioxidants in the body. It has been proven to help promote cardiovascular health, enhanced immune system function, aid in skin repair and to protect cell membranes from damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin E contributes to proper blood flow and clotting as well as cognitive health and function.
Natural sources of vitamin E include herbs such as cloves and oregano, whole grains, nuts and seeds, wheat germ, avocado, egg yolks, and vegetables/fruits such as dark leafy greens, peppers (red, yellow, orange, green), tomatoes, and mangos. Other sources are vegetable oils, margarines, and fortified cereals.

Prodigy-5 contains: Folic Acid is water-soluble vitamin important for many aspects of health. Sources of folic acid include dark, green leafy vegetables such as spinach or asparagus, fortified cereals, orange juice and legumes. Folic acid (folate) must go through a series of chemical conversions before it becomes metabolically active to be properly utilized within the body.
Folinic acid is the highly bioavailable, metabolically active derivative of folic acid and does not require the action of the enzyme dihydrofolinate reductase to become active, so it’s not affected by medicines and herbs that inhibit this enzyme. Adequate folate is necessary for proper DNA and RNA synthesis in regards to fetal growth and development. Due to these effects, the U.S. Public Health Service recommends all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 mcg of folic acid daily to prevent neural tube defects.
In addition to its clear effects on fetal growth and development, folic acid also plays an important role in cardiovascular health. By aiding in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine, it has been shown to reduce the levels of homocysteine, a sulfur containing amino acid. In the absence of adequate folic acid levels, homocysteine levels increase and high homocysteine levels are associated with atherosclerosis and the reduced circulation of oxygen and nutrients to the heart, ears and other organs. These results have been documented in countless studies. Folic acid, along with vitamin B6, vitamin B5, vitamin B12 and niacin, is involved in cell metabolism, enhances the immune system, supports the functions of the nervous system, aids in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy and promotes cognitive health.

Prodigy-5 contains: Vitamin K, a generic term for a group of fat soluble vitamins, are involved mostly in the process of blood clotting, but also needed in metabolic pathways of bones and other tissues. The most well known are vitamin K1, also known as phylloquinone, and vitamin K2, known as menaquinone. Vitamin D and vitamin K work together in bone metabolism and development. Vitamin K works against oral anticoagulants such as 4-hidroxikumarin, and excessive vitamin K intake, either through supplementation or a change in diet, can reduce the anticoagulant effect. Vitamin K1 is mainly found in leafy green vegetables (such as spinach, swiss chard and kale), avocado and kiwi fruit; vitamin K2 can be found in meat, eggs, and dairy and is also synthesized by bacteria in the colon.

More information about vitamins

PRODIGY-5 HIGHLIGHT

ANTIOXIDANTS


WHAT ARE OXIDANTS?

Oxidants are free radicals that either our bodies produce or we get from the environment. Our bodies create oxidants as a response to stress or poor diet, or we are exposed to oxidants through environmental factors like pollution. Oxidative damage is a contributing factor to many diseases, including muscle and tissue degeneration, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and many other health problems.


WHAT ARE FREE RADICALS?

Free radicals are atoms or groups of atoms with an odd (unpaired) number of electrons. They are like bullies that are low in energy and attack healthy cells and steal their energy to satisfy themselves. Free radicals cause damage to our blood vessels, which can lead to deposits of bad cholesterol and block arteries. Free radicals come in many shapes, sizes, and chemical configurations. What they all share is a voracious appetite for electrons, stealing them from any nearby substances that will yield them.

The human body naturally produces free radicals and the antioxidants to counteract their damaging effects. However, in most cases, free radicals far outnumber the naturally occurring antioxidants. In order to maintain the balance, a continuous supplemental source of external antioxidants are necessary in order to obtain the maximum benefits of antioxidants.


WHAT ARE ANTIOXIDANTS AND WHY DO WE NEED THEM?

Antioxidants are the nutrients’ police force! They are free radical scavengers! They get rid of the bullies! Antioxidants are like a million microscopic special ops on a mission to save your body from the inside out. The benefits of antioxidants are very important to good health, because if free radicals are left unchallenged, they can cause a wide range of illnesses and chronic diseases.

WHERE CAN WE FIND ANTIOXIDANTS?

Obtained through our foods and produced by are bodies, antioxidants are a powerful defense system.
Antioxidants can be found in flavonols (found in chocolate), resveratrol (found in wine), Ellagic acid (found in Raspberries and pomegranate), and lycopene (found in tomatoes). Other popular antioxidants include vitamins A (beta-carotene), C, E, and catechins.

GREAT SOURCES OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN PRODIGY-5

Marine phytoplankton, Raspberries, Pomegranates, Curcuma

Raspberries and pomegranates contain one of the most powerful antioxidants known, Ellagic acid. Ellagic acid is a potent natural antioxidant that can be found in raspberries and pomegranates. Ellagic acid has been shown to be an effective anti- mutagen and anti-carcinogen.

Anthocyanins (red flavonoid pigment found in plants) give pomegranates their red color and offer a strong serving of antioxidants. Punicalagins (a type of phenolic compound) specifically support cardiovascular and neurological health. Studies have shown that antioxidants 18. can play a role in reducing the cell damage of free radicals.

ANTIOXIDANTS AND AGING

Antioxidants are powerful molecules that support healthy aging in more ways than one. These potent compounds aid in an overall healthy lifestyle by supporting cellular health. Aging isn’t about your chronological age; it is more about the amount of stress in your life and the the function of your cells!

More information about antioxidants

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PRODIGY 5 PRICES


PRODIGY-5 Single Case
(One case contains 28 serving) prices
$ 75.95
€ 69.11
Prodigy 5 Single DEF small

PRODIGY-5 Double Case 
(One case contains 28 serving) prices
$ 149.95
€ 136.45
Prodigy 5 Double DEF small

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